Buṛɣwaṭa

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BuṛɣwaṭaBulɣwaṭa (s tɛṛabt: برغواطة nɣ بلغواطة) gan yan umqqun n twsitin timaziɣin nna tt inn ikkan izdɣ g tmazirt n Tamsna, gin zɣ umqqun n Imẓmudn.[1] Ḍart n ukccum nnsn llf d tgrawla n iẓufriyn inufuɣn ɣ Lmɣrib mgal n txalifat n Bnu Umayya, skrn yan uwank s tsnimant da umẓn (gr 744-1085 ḌT) ɣ tsga n Tmsna ɣ izɣarn iṭlanṭiyn gr Asfi d Sla ddaw n tnbaḍt n Ṭarif Lmṭɣri.

Amzruy

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Drusn ifruritn da ttwassanin f tgldit n Burɣwaṭa. Amata n isugam imzrayn gan imaẓuẓn f uzmz ɣ tt inn tkka tnbaḍt nnsn, ar anɣ akkan ɣ kigan n tkkal yat umnaḍ amzray amglan irwin, isduwwaxn. Maccan illa yan ɣ ibayn is t naḥya. Yan uslid iga t ɣayda yara Abu Ṣaliḥ Zmmur, nna tt inn ikkan iga waggag mqqurn n Ibrɣwaṭn, ig amsqad nnsn s Quṛṭuba ɣ imisi n tasuta tis 10. Umla da anɣ ifka ad igan wida akkʷ fruririnin f Burɣwaṭa[2]. Sslkmn anɣ tn id Lbakri, Ibn Ḥazm d Ibn xaldun mqqar immzri ufasr nnsn ɣ kra n tnqqaḍ.

Ssntan iburɣwaṭn, ɣ tsga n Iɣumarn d Imknasn, tagrawla tamaziɣt n 739/740. Ssrɣn as waggagn inufuɣn iẓufrann da igan yan taggayt tasgdant nna iflsn s yat tɣarast n usngiddi ɣ tnmgla i tarisṭuqraṣt n Quṛayc lli d imqqurn ddu txalifat n Banu Umayya. Stin iɣwwaɣn Maysara Lmṭɣri ad ig amɣar fad ad igli aɣwwɣ nnsn, mursn, amẓn ikalln n Lmɣrib atrar. Aya issimn tiɣwwɣin yaḍnin ɣ Lmɣrib d Wandalus. Ɣ Imnɣi n Baqdura, fnan iɣwwaɣn yan tsrdast nit idusn nna nn srsn yuzn uxalif n Banu Umayya zɣ Surya. Maccan tasrdast n iɣwwaɣn iṛẓa ɣd nttat ɣ imisi n Qayṛawan, Ifriqiyya ɣ 741. Ḍar n tṛẓi ad, tlluzza akkʷ tuṛfa nnsn. Dat akkʷ ad ijṛu maya, bdan yad ibrɣwaṭn, lli igan imsrsal n tɣwwaɣt, ar ttḍiqn acku iɣwwaɣn da iggʷran is kcmn, slawant akkʷ imɣarn n ijanatn, ran ad awin tanbaḍt  s wawwas n ikumisirn iẓufṛann. Lliɣ yad mursn ɣ uwttas nnsn amzwaru nna igan asdrfi n mddn zɣ tnbaḍt n Banu Umayya, ur d iɣama kra tn ittajjan ad sul drrun s tsrdast.

Ɣ 742 nɣ 743, ffɣn iburɣwaṭn tuṛfa n iɣwwaɣ, urrin s tsga n Tamsna lli illan ɣ uzaɣar utrim n Lmɣrib, skrn gis tagldit nnsn, fln tanufuɣt taẓufṛant nnsn.

Uggar n kraḍt tustin ad tkka tsga n tamsna ɣ ddu tnbaḍt n Ibrɣwaṭn (744-1058). Ddu tnbaḍt n Ṣaliḥ Bn Ṭarif, Ilyas Bn Ṣaliḥ (792-842); Yuns (842-888) d Bu Ɣufayl (888-913) tdus d tgldit, ar tssifiḍ imazann s tiwsatin taddjarin. Ɣ tuddma, kkant tt inn tzdayin ingrasn d Txalifat Tumayyat n Quṛṭuba fulkint, macc ɣ tgira n tasuta tis mrawt tṛẓa s tmntilt n sin wazzaɣn n Banu Umayya, d kra wazzaɣn sɣ dar ifaṭimiyn nna mi ɣnsn Ibrɣwaṭn, yili gr asn d Ayt Yfrn yan umnɣi icddan zɣ tasuta tis 11. Mqqar d lmḍn Ibrɣwaṭn g yan uzmz,[3] iẓḍiṛn sul ad ɣnsn i wazzaɣn n Imrabḍn — Immut gisn umɣar asgdan n Imṛabḍn Ɛbdlalh Bn Yasin ɣ ubaraz n imnɣi g 7 Yulyu 1058. 1149 ka a ɣ rẓan ibrɣwaṭn, fnun tn imuwḥḥidn, nɣubun am tgrumma tasrtant tasgdant[4].

Tiwsatin

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Sin wagnarn d tẓat twsatin ad tt inn ikkan kcmnt ɣ umqqun n Burɣwaṭa, iḍfuṛnt 12 zgitsnt asgd n Burɣwaṭa, ɣamant tiyyaḍ f Lislam.

Tiwsatin ḍfarnin asgd aburɣwaṭ (irks d Lislam)

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  • Igrawn (جراوة)
  • Izwaɣn (زواغة)
  • Brans (البرانس)
  • Ayt Bu Naṣr (بني أبي ناصر)
  • Imnjaẓn (منجصة)
  • Ayt Bu Nuḥ (بني أبي نوح)
  • Ayt Waɣmr (بني واغمر
  • Imṭɣrn (مطغرة)
  • Ayt Burɣ (بني بورغ)
  • Ayt Drr (بني درّ)
  • Imṭmaṭn (مطماطة)
  • Ayt Zksnt (بني زكسنت)

Tiqbilin Tinslmin Tinufuɣin

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  • Ijanatn n udrar (زناتة الجبل)
  • Ayt Bllit (بنو بليت)
  • Inmlaln (نمالة)
  • Iwnsnt (أونسنت)
  • Ayt Yfrn (نو يفرن)
  • Ayt Naɣit (بنو ناغيت)
  • Ayt Nnɛman (بنو النعمان)
  • Ayt Fllusn (بنو فلوسة)
  • Ayt Kuna (وبنو كونة)
  • Ayt Skbbr (بنو سبكر)
  • Aẓẓadn (أصّادة)
  • Irgragn (رُكانة)
  • Imanadn (منادة)
  • iminn (أزمين)
  • Imasinn (ماسينة)
  • Irẓann (رصانة)
  • Itrarn (ترارته)

Kra zɣ twsatin ad ittyubdarn, zun d Brans, Imṭmaṭn, Yfrn d Itrarn gan ɣar ixsan zɣ twsatin mqqurnin, ɣar tida llanin ɣ tsga n Tmsna ad ikcmn s umqqun n Burɣwaṭa.

Tisuɣal

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  1. Le Tourneau, R. (1986) [1960]. "Barg̲h̲awāṭa". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. I (2nd ed.). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p. 1043. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_1231. ISBN 9004081143.
  2. Ẓr amnni ad lli d iffɣn tikklt tamzwarut ɣ tsɣunt n Hesperis, ittwarcifa ɣ 18 brir, 2007.
  3. Is akkʷ ibdr Lbakri mas fnan ɣ 1029 maccan aya ur imsasa d aylli daɣ inna g idɣarn yaḍnin f imnɣan nnsn d imṛabḍn.
  4. Le Tourneau, R. (1986) [1960]. "Barg̲h̲awāṭa". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. I (2nd ed.). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p. 1044. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_1231. ISBN 9004081143.