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tawlaft n tɣrmt n cfcawn

Tga tɣrmt n Cfcawn niɣ Ccawn niɣ Accawn yat tɣrmt lli ila assaɣ n (tɣrmt tazzgzat) tga zɣ tɣrmt n iẓẓlmḍ n lmɣrib, tasga n ṭanja tiṭwan lḥusima. tlla tɣrmt n cfcawn zɣ tasutin lli izrin urta tlli tlalit iklli mlan inagan imrzutn n umzruy d taṛkyulujit, macc tiɣrmt ad tsufa s uẓnẓṛ n tɣrma zg usggʷas n 1471 g tasut n mulay ɛli bn ṛcd, lliɣ tt iga d tɣrmt iḥḍan imslmn n landalus tsbrrktn lliɣ tn d ṭṭayn isbanyuln, tg awd iɣrm n isardasn afna n ufrag.

illa g tɣrmt n ccawn yan wanaw n tudrt ɣ tmsasa kigan n tussna d udmawn n kigan n timyurin n ufgan, msasan t tmyurin ad ngrasnt zɣ wahli n tasutin lli izrin, d wafulki ajugṛafi lli dars illan, iga tt asggʷas n 2010 mas tga tiɣrmt tamatart n unagraw n tiram g yill amllal amṛwaṣu zɣ dar tmaddast n lyunisku. d ula tifrkiwin n tussna d tniḍi d tẓuṛi lli gis illan, ilint gis awd tiɣawsiwin lli igan tin tɣrmt zun d tiɣawsiwin n tkrza d tniḍi.[1]

Lyunisku:

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Ṛṛbaṭ - tsgurant, ass n ukṛas, tɣrmiwin n lɛyun d bngrir d cfcawn ad gint tɣrmiwin n uslmd sg tnmallayt n tmta ymann n usgmi d tmassant d tdlsa (lyunisku).

inna yan usiwḍ n ugraw anamur amɣrabi n usgmi d imassn d tdlsa mas tɣrmiwin ad llant ammas n yat tzṭṭa tagraɣlant n "lyunisku" n tɣrmiwin n uslmd, lli yttuskarn ɣik lli tra "tsguri n "bikin" xf tɣrmiwin n uslmd", ittusɣẓann g usgraw agraɣlan n tɣrmiwin n uslmd lli ymann g bikin gr 21 d 23 kṭubṛ 2013.

isul inna wsiwḍ mas agraw anamur amɣrabi n usgmi d imassn d tdlsa iman d tɣrmiwin n lɛyun d bngrir d cfcawn ammas n uḥyyl n isdawn n tamskadt nnsn, d iṛa yatn ad zzigrn isutln d isbdadn lli tsrs "lyunisku" af ad tssn imstayn imsqadn n imal.[2]

tawlaft n crruda ngr cfcawn d wad law

Tajugṛafit

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Tlla cfcawn g isil n udrar n lqlɛt, ssutln as taccawin n idrarn zun d tismlal, buḥaja, maku. tlla taggug 60 id kilu mitṛ iffus aminig n tɣrmt n tiṭwan. ttrs cfcawn f wakal yumẓn g tsna 11.4 id kilu mitr 2 kilumitr zɣ gis tumẓtt tɣrmt n ccawn tazaykut. d isukn lli iffaɣn igudar n tɣrmt tazaykut d kra n tmnaḍin zund tamnaḍt n lɛyun d udrar, d iswak igan zund iduṛan ur irwasn iswak n tɣrmt g ugnsu nns zun asuk n gruzim, turɣin, ḍhṛ bn ɛyyad…[3][4]

Tbḍa tɣiwant n cfcawn f f kṛaḍt tmnaḍin. ilkm uṭṭun n imzdaɣ g tɣiwant n cfcawn uggar n 57.329 n ufgan iklli imla uzrru n imzdaɣ d tzduɣt asggʷas n 2014.[5]

Aẓuṛ n ism

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ikkad wassaɣ n cfcawn taguri tamaziɣt (asawn) niɣ (acawn) lli mi iga unamk nns g tmaziɣt (asawn n udrar) s tutlayt n tɛṛabt (سفح الجبل), taguri ad tmlal kigan i tawlaft nns tajugṛafit. tili awd taguri yaḍnin g tmaziɣt lli imsasan d wassaɣ nns (ccayf n usawn) lli igan (ccayf n ucawn) ccayf g tmaziɣt igat ixf n udrar, d acawn niɣ asawn igat isil n udrar g tutlayt tamaziɣt.s tutlayt n tɛṛabt ( شايف ن أوشاون أوأساون = قمة السفح أوالجبل), tili taguri yaḍnin lli igan (askawn) lli d iffɣn zɣ usuf n (isk) tfk anamk yaḍnin, s tutlayt n tɛṛabt ( أسكاون ايشاون = قرون او مفرده اسك ). macc anamk tusi tguri ad taggug kigan i tawlaft n idrarn n tɣrmt.[6]

Amzruy

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tawlaft n tɣrmt n ccawn f isil n udrar.

G usggʷas n 1471, lliɣ kkusan ibṛṛanin ibrtqqizin tiɣrmawin illan f uftas zund ṭanja d lqṣṛ amẓyan d aẓila, iga nn ugʷrram mulay ɛli bn ṛacd tiggʷas nns ḥma ad nn irar ibrtqqizin ad d ur kcmn s ugnsu n tmurt. tizi ann iskr ugʷrram ad yan uɣudu n isardasn f icuyaf n idrarn lli issutln i tɣrmt n cfcawn. tizi ann tazduɣt n tɣrmt ur bahra tzgi f ufra, lliɣ ad fllas kccmn trubba n indalusin kra iga tt azmz (iklli bdrn warratn srusnin), tg tɣrmt ad tizi ann tga zun d agadir lli iḥḍan tiɣrmt zɣ iɣwwaɣn ibṛṛanin, tg zund ‘tiɣrmt tafuẓart’.

ilul mulay ɛli bn ṛacd g udwwaṛ n gruzim asggʷas n 1440. idda ugʷrram s landalus lliɣ ilkm ɣ uwtay nns 30 n usggʷas ḥma ad idru g imnɣi lli illan afna n imasiḥin ḥma ad ḥaman f iwutta n tgldit taɣṛnaṭit. ɣin aɣ itahl s yan tmɣart tkcm asgd n lislam s umaynu lli ilan assaɣ n lalla ẓhṛa zg tɣrmt n bxir di lafruntira.

G usggʷas n 1456, iwrrid mulay ɛli bn ṛacd s lmɣrib ḥma ad izdaɣ g udwwaṛ nns gruzim, yafd daddas nɣant ibrtqqizin g imnɣi n bujmɛa, immaɣ tizi ann mulay ɛli bn ṛacd s imnɣan lli iskr ḥma ad d irar snat tɣrmawin lli ukrn ibṛṛanin sbta d ṭanja.

ismatti tazduɣt n middn g tɣrmt zɣ tsga tẓlmaḍt n wasif n ṛas lma ar tasga tafasit, gn iswaɣn n mayan iskr iswaɣn istṛatijin, ad zɣ gisn nbdr : ad mlaln i ifri n ṛas lma d ad ilin ddaw uḥṭṭu n icuyaf n idurar lli issutln i tɣrmt.

G uzmz n kraḍt tasutin, tuma tɣrmt llig gis zdaɣn ibudrarn n tanila nns d middn d yiwrrin zɣ landalus. awd tuma tɣrmt ad s kigan n tmrsal gis bnant tnbaḍin lli s tt iwalan ɣ kra igatt azmz, timzgadiwin d uḥṭṭu n isardasn zɣ kra igatt agadir lli as issutln lli ilan uggan n mraw imawn. g tama n lqṣbt lli ibna mulay ɛli bn ṛacd, ttbna yat tmzdiga tamqrant, lli mi ullsn i tska nns g tasut n sa d mraw, tla tmzgida ad yat tmyaddant ilan atig iɣusn igan tamkkuẓt ar n ttaggʷa f yan usays n luṭa n lḥmmam.

G umzruy, tga tɣrmt n cfcawn tazaykut tiɣrmt tamɣribit lli ɣ tumun tussna tamɣribit s kra igatt udm d anaw n tussna tandalusit d fllas ikcmn. zg 1471- 1609, kcmn d s tmdint kigan n imuslmn imɣribin lli d iwrrin zɣ landalus lliɣ tn d ṭṭayn imasiḥin zɣ sbanya. ɣan af tla tɣrma n tmdint kigan n udmawn n tussna imsasan. tṭṭaf tɣrmt ad atig s wafulki n tzdugi dars illan d udɣar agaman abudrar llig tlla. awd aẓkka nns iṭṭf unuɣn d wanawn n tska igan tamɣribit z uẓuṛ lli ifalkin s tifrkiwin n unuɣn lli igan tin tɣrmt, d umsasa n ikʷlan d tgʷmma ifka i tɣrmt yan waddur akswat g tɣrma n lmṛṛuk akkʷ.[7][8][9]

Timatarin timzray

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tawlaft n tɣrmt n cfcawn zg igudar n lqṣbt

Lqṣbt

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Nnan warratn n umzruy mas ttawssann iwtta n tɣrmt zɣ tsga lli mi ttinin (عدوة وادي شفشاون) ar asggʷas n 1471, lliɣ bdrn warratn mas taɣrma n cfcawn tssfal g ufus n ugʷrram mulay lfqih bu lḥsn lli ittawssann s bujmɛa. g ḍaṛat nns illa iwis n daddas bulḥsn ɛli bn ṛacd ikmml i twuri nns, allig iga iwtta n tɣrmt g tsga n wasif yaḍnin ( العدوة الاخرى ), ibnu gis lqṣbt nns zdaɣn gis ayt dars d willi t iwalan.

Tlla lqṣbt g tsga n tagut n tɣrmt, tg lqṣbt ad uẓu n tɣrmt amzwaru, lliɣ tt iga mulay ɛli bn ṛacd adɣar n tzduɣt n tawja nns d isardasn nns ḥma ad yili uḥṭṭu zɣ brtqqiz. aẓkka n lqṣbt, issutl as ugadir f llan mrawt talbṛjin, ig wanaw ann n tska anaw illan g landalus. agnsu n lqṣbt iṭṭf yat turtit tamqrant ifalkin s snat tmdayinn waman. ig usalay atnugṛafi wad yumẓn tasga n iẓẓlmḍ n tagut n lqṣbt. amzruy n usalay ann ar immal mas ittbna g tagara n tasut n 17. ibnat ɛli arifi lwali n ugllid mulay smaɛil f tmnaḍt ann. iga usalay ad amamk n tgʷmma tizaykutin timɣribin lli innuṛẓmn f usarag n ugʷns nns g tlla tala n waman, ssutln as tmṣṛay ilin tiyyaḍ g tdala tis snat.

Tala waman tazaykut tafalkayt s unuɣn nns g tɣrmt n cfcawn tamɣribit

Asays n luṭa n lḥmmam

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iga usays n luṭa n lḥmmam yan usays n umun acfcawni iwala i tɣrmt tazaykut n cfcawn, tg tsna nns 3000 mitru, ig ul n tɣrmt amzruy amallay, d kigan n ibrdan n tɣrmt ar sis ttawin. g umzwaru iga usays ad yan wammas n ugadaz anmalass, ar gis ttilin middn n tsgiwin n tɣrmt d imzdaɣ n tɣrmt. ur sul igi usays ad ɣilad agadaz idwr iẓli s tɣawsiwin n tmallayt ilint tsiram g udɣar n tḥuna n tsbbabt. ifalki usays s tala waman gis illan tili ɣ tama nns tmzdiga mqqurn d lqṣbt, g usays ad ag ttilin isfuglutn d inmuggar am: anmuggar n lɣrya n iẓẓlmḍ d unmuggar amaḍlan n umzgun.

Timzgida mqquṛn n cfcawn

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Timzgida mqqurn n tɣrmt n cfcawn tga yat tmzgida tazaykut yutn s iẓuṛan nns g umzruy.

Ttbna tmzgida ad g tasut n tawja bn ṛacd tadrisit g tasut n 16, g ufus n unbaḍ n tɣrmt ssi muḥmmad bn mulay ɛli bn musa bn ṛacd aɛalami adrisi lḥasani, kmmln lbni nns g usggʷas n 969.

Tẓli tmzgida ad s tsna mqqurn yumẓ d tassumɛit nns ilan atig akswat, iṭṭf awd ttriyat n ukccuḍ illa f iggi n tduli n lmḥrab, tẓil tunuɣt gisn illa tṭṭf addur.

yan usuk zg uswak n tɣrmt n cfcawn tamɣribit

iswak izaykutn n tɣrmt

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Asuk n tassuqt

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iga usuk ad wis sin iswak lli bahra igan izaykutn g tɣrmt lli ittbnan ḍaṛat n mad ttbna lqṣbt, tmun gis tizi ann 80 n tawja tandalusit llid yiwrrin zɣ landalus tmund d mulay ɛli bn ṛacd lliɣ d yiwrri awd nttan. ila assaɣ ad acku gis yat tassuqt ttbna tagara n tasut tis smmust d mraw. ilint g usuk ad tgʷmma tizaykutin lli ilsan aklu amllal d uzzgza. tg tala n waman lli izdin d uɣʷrab illan g yan uɣʷdmmi n tassuqt tala ilan atig lliɣ tla unuɣn fulkinin lli as d ifal zik.[10]

Asuk n landalus

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ittbna usuk ad ḥma ad ig tazduɣt n trabbut tis snat n middn d iwrrin zɣ landalus asggʷas n 1492. g umamk immrwas usuk ad d usuk n tassuqt, macc iẓli usuk n landalus s tska nns taṭubbugrafit s tgʷmma gis illan lli ilan snat tdaliwin niɣd akkʷ kṛaḍt ḥma ad amunt tawjiwin n middn, iṭṭf usuk ad kigan n imawn.

ikʷlan n umlil d uzzgza n yan usuk zg uswak n tɣrmt n cfcawn tamɣribit

Asuk n lɛnṣṛ

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iga iflu n lɛnṣṛ awuttu n tɣrmt s tsga n iẓẓlmḍ n tagut zɣ dar ugadir n tɣrmt n cfcawn, agadir ad lli mi ullsn taska nns kigan n tikkal, acku tiɣrmt ar tt unɣl tɣrmt tasutin f tasutin. d imzdaɣ n usuk ad ur udjan amamk n usuk ad s iklli iga, acku iɣ iẓṛa yan talbṛjt n ugadir illan f usuk ad ur trwas talbṛjin ann yaḍn ila ugadir ann f tsga n iswak ann yaḍn, d talbṛjt n usuk ad tga tllast n tlabṛjt tazaykut s tt inn ikkan lli irwasn akud ann talbṛjt n iflu lɛin, awd nttan ar aɣ issktay g umamk nns talbṛjin n tɣṛnaṭt.[11]

Asuk n iṣbbann

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illa f tsga n ubrid ittawin s ṛas lma. llant g usuk ad kigan n tẓuḍa n waman tizaykutin lli s tt inn ikkan ar sisnt ẓẓaḍn middn aqqayn n uzmmur. ili g usuk ad awd yan ufarnu azayku izdin d yal tlggʷit tlla f wasif n lfwwaṛa.[12]

ifri n ṛas lma

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iga ifri n ṛas lma yan uẓu n tɣrmt n cfcawn akkʷ. acku ifri ad ikkatt inn ig sul yan uɣbalu n waman n tissi n tɣrmt d waman n tayrza. ig tiddas n tɣrma n cfcawn imlal i usuk n iṣbbann.

Abrid n lmɣrib

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iga ubrid n lmɣrib aɣaras mqquṛn g zrayn inmmudda d tmssudutin ar ittawi s ugadaz n tɣrmt anmalass.

Tiwlafin

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Isaɣuln

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  1. "مدينة شفشاون المغربية... الجوهرة الزرقاء". مؤرشف من الأصل في 2018-07-25.
  2. https://www.mapnews.ma/am/actualites/%E2%B5%9C%E2%B4%B0%E2%B4%B7%E2%B5%8D%E2%B5%99%E2%B4%B0/%E2%B5%9C%E2%B4%B0%E2%B5%A5%E2%B5%9F%E2%B5%9F%E2%B4%B0-%E2%B5%9C%E2%B4%B0%E2%B4%B3%E2%B5%94%E2%B4%B0%E2%B5%96%E2%B5%8D%E2%B4%B0%E2%B5%8F%E2%B5%9C-%E2%B5%8F-%E2%B5%8D%E2%B5%A2%E2%B5%93%E2%B5%8F%E2%B5%89%E2%B5%99%E2%B4%BD%E2%B5%93-%E2%B5%9C%E2%B5%9C%E2%B5%93%E2%B5%99%E2%B5%9C%E2%B4%B0%E2%B5%8F%E2%B5%9C-%E2%B5%8D%E2%B5%84%E2%B5%A2%E2%B5%93%E2%B5%8F-%E2%B4%B7-%E2%B4%B1%E2%B5%8F%E2%B4%B3%E2%B5%94%E2%B5%89%E2%B5%94-%E2%B4%B7-%E2%B5%9B%E2%B4%BC%E2%B5%9B%E2%B4%B0%E2%B5%A1%E2%B5%8F-%E2%B4%B0%E2%B5%8E-%E2%B5%9C%E2%B5%96%E2%B5%94%E2%B5%8E%E2%B5%89%E2%B5%A1%E2%B5%89%E2%B5%8F-%E2%B5%8F-%E2%B5%93%E2%B5%99%E2%B5%8D%E2%B5%8E%E2%B4%B7
  3. "الموقع الجغرافي لمدينة شفشاون". مؤرشف من الأصل في 2019-06-10.
  4. https://www.openstreetmap.org/relation/6053065/history
  5. "مدينة شفشاون المغربية.. جوهرة زرقاء بين الجبال". مؤرشف من الأصل في 2018-09-28.
  6. "وثائقي عن تاريخ شفشاون - الجزيرة الوثائقية". مؤرشف من الأصل في 2019-12-21.
  7. "تاريخ مدينة شفشاون". مؤرشف من الأصل في 2019-07-09.
  8. "History : When an American squadron violated US neutrality laws, bombing
  9. https://web.archive.org/web/20190709221332/http://www.chefchaouen.ma/pages/486
  10. https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%B4%D9%81%D8%B4%D8%A7%D9%88%D9%86#cite_ref-14
  11. https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chefchaouen
  12. A resolution of the city council of Issaquah, Washington, establishing Chefchaouen, Morocco as Issaquah's newest sister city. نسخة محفوظة 18 أكتوبر 2014 على موقع واي باك مشين