Madrid

Zɣ Wikipedia
Aller à la navigation Aller à la recherche
Madrid
Spnyul
Tamssugurt
Awank anayanSpnyul
Communauté autonome d'EspagneCommunauté de Madrid
Municipalité d'EspagneMadrid
Anssixf n tnbaḍtJosé Luis Martínez-Almeida Navasqüés
Ism amaddudMadrid
Ism aqqburMadrid
Inigl asaway28001–28081
Tajɣraft
0°0′0″N 0°0′0″E
 40°25′01″N 3°42′12″W / 40.4169°N 3.7033°W / 40.4169; -3.7033
Tajumma604,4551 km²
Tattuyt667 m
Iwtta dAlcorcón, Alcobendas, Leganés, Pozuelo de Alarcón, Getafe, Rivas-Vaciamadrid, San Fernando de Henares, Coslada, Paracuellos de Jarama, San Sebastián de los Reyes, Colmenar Viejo, Tres Cantos, Hoyo de Manzanares, Torrelodones, Las Rozas de Madrid d Majadahonda
Tdimuɣraft
Imzdaɣn3 332 035 n imzdaɣn (2023)
Umlan yaḍnin
Tanglt n utilifun91
Akud adiganAMS+01:00 d UTC+02:00
Timdinin tikniwinBuenos Aires, Abu Ḍabi, Asuncion, Pkin, Berlin, Bogota, Bordeaux, Budapest, Caracas, Guatemala, La Havane, La Paz, Lima, Lisbun, Managua, Manille, Miksiku, Montevideo, New York, Nwaqcuṭ, Panama, Quito, Prag, Rrbaṭ, Rio de Janeiro, San José, San Juan, San Salvador, Santiago, Saint-Domingue, Sarajevo, Sofia, Tegucigalpa, Ṭrabls, Waṛsu, Cannes, La Serena, Chimbote, Bruxlls, Atna, Dimcq, Miami, Tirana, comté de Maui, Mrrakc, Ḥama, Mosku d Kyiv
madrid.es d munimadrid.es

Madrid tga tamaẓunt d tɣrmt akkʷ da bahra itkarn s mddn ɣ Sbanya. Tiɣrmt ad gis ma ittggan 3.4 id mlyun n imzdaɣn, ar lkkmn man ur yaggugn i 7 mlyun ɣ usarag amiṭṛubulitan. Nttat ad igan tiɣrmt tis snat da tnt yugrn ɣ tamunt Turubit (TmTr). Arndsma n Madrid iɣʷi yan usarag n 604.3 km2. Tiɣrmt n Madrid tlla f wasif n Manzanares ɣ wammas n tgzirt taybirit ɣ 650 mitru nnig waman n ill. Tga tamaẓunt n Sbanya d tmnaḍt tagrummant n Madrid (sɣ 1983), tg tuẓẓumt n tsrtit d tdamsa d tdlsa n tmazirt. Tifiras n ungigt n Madrid nẓlint s yan unbdu irɣan d yat tagrst iṣmmiḍn.

Asgudi Amddin Uɣrim n Madrid (AsAmUɣM) iga wis sin ɣ GDP ɣ Tamunt Turubit, ula ila iḍiṣ nns ɣ tsrtit d usslmd d ufjjij d twnnaḍt d umidya d imuḍa d twssna d tdlsa d tẓuriwin. Ɣayad akkʷ a tt ittajjan ad tg yat ɣ tɣrmiwin mqqurnin n ddunit. S usnulfu nns adamsan d uswir yattuyn n tudrt d yan ugdz iflin, Madrid tga sul tuẓẓumt taẓṛfant tamqqurt d issl iẓẓimiẓn n tgzirt taybirit d win iffus n Urupa.

Tiɣrmt n Mdrid ad igan tiɣrmt tis snat da tnt yugrn ɣ tamunt Turubit (TmTr)

Aẓuṛ n ism

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

• Iẓuran n ism n Madrid ur wala ttyawssann. Llan kra n irimn f mad igan aẓur n ism ad n "Madrid" (kullu tnt illa gisnt kra n umukris ɣ ussfru n ugʷmmay n ism ad amzruyan):

1) Yan irim inna is d ikka takltiyt (Madrid < Magetoritum; s uẓur "-ritu" da isnamkn "azagar").

2) Sɣ taɛrabt *maǧrà* / majrā (isnamkn "ɣilli ɣ izray asif") niɣ d sɣ Tɛrabt: مجريط, *majrīṭ*, isnamkn "tala", "aɣbalu". Ɣwad iga ism amzwaru da illan ɣ warratn zdinin d udɣar ad.

3) Yan uẓuṛ amuzarab n tlatinit *matrix*, *matricis* (dɣ nttat tsnamk "ɣilli ɣ izray wasif").

Ismawn yaḍnin

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ḍfṛismawn n tɣrmt n Madrid s umagut gan tn *Los Madriles* d *El Foro* (isnamkn 'asgraw'). *La Villa y Corte* (isnamkn 'tiɣrmt d ibrgmmi') ar d issktay assmɣr da ittyawfkanin i tɣrmt ad.

Amzruy

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Adɣar ann n Madrid tatrart ittyawzdaɣ sɣ izmaz n ma izwurn amzruy, llan ɣinn isagurn n usdurri n ikltiyyn Karbataniyn d tgmma tirumaniyyin d yat tbzilikt Taqutit nnig aẓallu n Santa María de la Almudena, ilin kraḍ n ibrsmḍal iqutiyyn nnig Casa de Campo d Titwan d Vicálvaro.

Azmz anammas

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Arra amzwaru n umzruy da isawaln f udɣar ittrsln ɣ Madrid ikka d azmz n Imuslmn. Ɣ uzgn wis sin n tasut tis 9, agldun umawi Muḥammad Amzwaru ibna yan ugadir f yan udrar nnig i wasif n Manzanares. Ig yan ɣ igudar ggutnin da imuzr ugldun ad ad ttyawbnan ɣ iẓiki gr Andalus d tgldiwin n Lyun d Qctala, s uwttas n tarayt n Tulidu f wazzaɣn n imsiḥiyn, ula ad daɣ ig amdgar n tukya n Imuslmn. Lliɣ tbḍa lxlift n Qurtuba ɣ tzwiri n tasut tis 11, Madrid tkcm ɣ tgrumma n Ṭulidu.

Ɣ umnaḍ n lḥṛkt iflin n uṭuf n tgrumma n Tuliḍu da issntin ɣ 1079, Madrid tettyawzba ɣ 1083 s ufus n Alfonso wis sḍis n Lyun d Qctala, iwats ɣwad ad issmrs tiɣrmt zun d yan ida n tiffaɣ mgal Ṭuliḍu, da ittɣʷin ɣ 1085. Mad d ikkan mnid i uṭuf ad, imsiḥiyn zdɣn ammas n tɣrmt, imuslmn d wudayn mmattin s uzlag n tɣrmt, Madrid d yuckan tama n Ilcala (illan sul ddu tnbaḍt n imuslmn ar 1118), tɣama iza tga tamazirt n ugrakal ɣ yan wakud, tnnar kra n lḥṛkat ɣ uzmz n Imrabḍn, agadir nns ittyawrdal ɣ 1110.

Azmz atrar

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ɣ tgrawla n Qumunirus da igli Juan Lopez de Padilla, Madrid tkcm dɣ nttat mgal Tcarl, amnkud n Tmnuka Tarumant Tafuẓaṛt, is ka lliɣ tṛẓa ɣ imnɣi n Villalar, Madrid ittyuga as ufrag, sdurrin tt ilmma imknasn n umnkud. Waxxa dɣmkann tiɣrmt ad iɣama as izwl asmɣran n Kurunada (Isni) d Tumnkidt.

Uṭṭun n imzdaɣn n tɣrmt iɣli sɣ 4,060 ɣ usggʷas n 1530 ar 37,500 ɣ usggʷas n 1594. Imzdaɣn imqrutn n tnbaḍt ar tettili s imknasn iqburn, imzditn, imddukkal d Ruanes, ur mmurwin s tusra n utci d utwan n itaggn. Ɣ yunyu 1561 Filip wis sin isrs ibrgmmi nns ɣ Madrid, ig tt inn d ibrgmmi aqbur. S ɣmkad, tiɣrmt n Madrid turri d tga tuẓẓumt n tsrtit n tgldit, tg tamaẓunt n Sbanya aysilad yat tzizit gr 1601 d 1606 da ɣ tmatti tnbaḍt s Baladawid.

Filip wis smmus ibna gis Ibrgmmi agldan, tamguri tagldant n usutn d tkadimin tigldanin timzwura. Tanbaḍt n Kaṛluṣ wis kraḍ, da bahra ittyawssann s "unmɣur da tn akkʷ yufn ɣ Madrid", iga ɣakudann tuggas ad irar ɣ tɣrmt ad tga yat tmaẓunt idusn, s uzzray n trgʷa n waman d iswak d tifawin d ismḍal bṛṛa n tmdint d kra n idɣarn d twssna d tdlsa. Macc isnfal da d yiwi luzir nns Asisli mgalan disn middn ɣ 1766 ɣ mad ittyawssann s Imnɣi n Iskilac, yat tgrawla yutsn ad sittin yan umuṛṣum n ugdal n ussmrs n tarazal n iqburn d ixnifn s usggru ad krin tukkṛḍa ɣ ɣ ugns tɣrmt.

Imnɣi uɣrim wis sin

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Adustur n Sbanya n 1931 iga amzwaru da issutln f ussdɣr n tmaẓunt n tmazirt, tettyawbdar gis Madrid s unamk idusn. Ɣ isgasn n 1930, Madrid tfjjij s yan "umussu uddir"; tga yat tɣrmt tazdɣant tamaynut, tkcm as tɣrma s usskfl tg tuẓẓumt n umussutn isrtann imaynutn. Ɣ wakud ad, tuṣkiwin bahra mqqurnin ssntin d gis.

Madrid tga yat ɣ tmdinin da akkʷ bahra ttutnin ɣ Imnɣi uɣrim n Sbanya (1936-1939). Tga ansa ittyamaẓn ɣ ifassn Républicanos (Igdudaniyn) sɣ yulyuz 1936, tg yat tiẓṛi tamaḍlant n tmazzla mgal Afacizm ɣ imnɣi ad. Tiɣrmt tnnar acrcm aylalan, ɣ Nuwambir 1936, tḍr nn ɣ ifassn n Ifaciyn ɣ mars 1939.

Tisuɣal

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]