Snɣafura

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Snɣafura niɣ d Tasnɣafurt tga kra n tgzirin mẓẓiynin (uggar n 50) ismun tnt yan uwank ɣ yiffus n ugmmuḍ n Wasya, tagzirt lli gisn imqqurn nttat ad igan tamaẓunt n tmazirt-ad, ɣayann ad gis iskrn yat tmazirt ɣ iggut udfas, tawwṭfa nns tga ɣar yat 700km² hlli, zdɣn gis yan 4,5 n umlyun n mddn, anzwi nns irɣa iggunda mqqar ɣik ann tetkar s taganin. [1]Tamazirt-ad trks, gis ccinwa da iskarn amaka n imzdaɣn ilin gis imaliziyyn d iṛmmuyn dɣ nttni, mqqar ukan tawankt-ad drusn as isugam, ar d tettawi gigan n tɣawsiwin ssɣ tmizar yaḍnani, imil tga yat ssɣ yiwunak akkʷ flujjanin ɣ umaḍal.[1]

Amzruy

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Mddn zdɣn ɣ tgzirt-ad ssɣ yan uzmz imaṭln, ɣ gr 1200 ar 1300 tmmussa nit gis tsbbabt, trwwj gis luqt s kud uckan ɣ usggʷas n 1377 kra n mddn ssɣ Java rdln tt, rwin tt safi, ssɣ ɣ wakud ann txsi tgzirt, ur tt sul isɣawsa yan amr kra n ingmarn d imxxarn n iɣrruba.[1]

Ɣ tizwiri n tasut 19, yan umɣar n tmazirt-ann iwafq ad ifk tamazirt i Bṛiṭanya lli fllas isrsn afus, iɣama lḥal ɣik ann ar 1963 lliɣ tkcm Snɣafura ddu tnbaḍt n Malizya ur gi-s tkki bahra aylliɣ sul dis tbḍa, tskr tawankt igan tins.[1]

Anamk

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Ism n Snɣafura ar ittafa anamk nns ɣ tutlayt Tasankrit Simḥapura: Iɣrm n yizm.

Middn

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Tutlayt

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Ar sawaln ayt Snɣafura smmust n tutlayin ad tnt igan d: Tacinwit (34%), Tanglizt (3,7%), Tamalizit (7,6%), Tamil (2%)... Llant sul gigan d tutlayin yaḍnin (Tajapuniyt, Tandunizt, Takuriyt, Tahndit..).[2]

Tanglizit ad igan tutlayt n ɣaylli igan amaddud, d "Lingua Franka" gr imzdaɣn.

Ur illi kra n usgd amaddud igan win wawank, kra iga tt tagrgurt ar tḍfur wins. Macc Tabudiyyt ad bahra iggutn dar mddn, slawan dar Ccinwa n Snɣafura.[1]

Lusul n ayt tmazirt

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Ccinwa ur gin ayt lasl n tmazirt is ka rwln s tmazirt-a ɣ wussan n yimiɣ amaḍlan wis 2 (IAW2) mqqar nttni ad iskrn tigtti, iɣ ar nsawal f umzruy hati imaliziyyn ad nit igan imzwura nns.[2]

Tadamsa

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Tasbbabt tlla ɣ wul n tdamsa ɣ Snɣafura, ar ssaɣn d ar zznzan iqcucn d yiwunak yaḍnin, aylli iskarn ma iggutn ɣ idɣarn n twuri, dars kada d id luzin da skarnin ṭimubilin d ikamyutn, iyafutn icimawiyn, ibrdan d uṛẓiyn, irukutn, imissn iliktrunikn, tawankt-ad teṭṭaf daɣ tuẓẓmin n ibankatn d ccarikat. Idrus ɣ mddn mad isalan tafllaḥt.

Asarag n Raffl

Imma iqaṛiḍn hati ar ssxdamn Aḍular Asnɣafur.

Tisuɣal

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  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 et 1,4 World Book Discovery Encyclopedia.
  2. 2,0 et 2,1 https://www.axl.cefan.ulaval.ca/asie/singa.htm