Tifinaɣ

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tifinaɣ n uzmz azayku g tinzulin
tirra n tfinaɣ n yat tḥanut g lmɣrib.

Tifinaɣ (Asusru amaziɣ: [tifinaɣ]; Niyu-Tifinaɣ: ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵖ; Tifinaɣ n imuzaɣ: ⵜⴼⵉⵏⵗ niɣ ⵜⴼⵏⵗ) iga yan ugʷmmay n tirra ittyusmrasn g tirra n tutlayin timaziɣin[1][2].

Tettyuskar yat twafuɣt tatrart n ugʷmmay abldi, ddaw ism Niyu-Tifinaɣ (s tnglizt: Neo-Tifinaɣ) ɣ tasuta tis 20. Ar tettyusmras yat twafuɣt n uskkil abldi, ism nns Tifinaɣ IRCAM, ɣ usslmd n tutlayt tamaziɣt i wazzann ɣ tinmal ula ɣ kra n tẓrigin ɣ Lmɣrib[3].

Tucka-d tguri Tifinaɣ, ɣ tannayt n kra n imrzzutn, zɣ usmzzɣ n tguri “Punicus” talatint s ti- lli igan azwir n wunti amaziɣ[4][5] ; ayann a f irwas is tsnamk “(iskkiln) ifuniqn” nɣ d “iskkiln ibuniqn”. Wiyyaḍ ar snaln yat tsnaẓɣuṛt izdin d umyag “efneɣ” lli isnamkn 'Ara'[6].

Asala[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ar ttinin imuzayn is d yucka ugʷmmay n Tifinaɣ zɣ ugʷmmay alibi azayku nɣ Alibu-maziɣ (Libyco-Berber), macc amhaz nns ur bahra yuman[7]. Amggaru ad ikka tt inn ar t bahra ssmrasn imssiwln n tutlayt Tanuimidt nɣ Talibit taqburt, nna f ur nssin amr kra idrusn, ɣ tfriqt n ugafa. Asala n ugʷmmay ad ur ittwassan s tmyimant. Kra n imrzzutn annin is ila kra n tsqqnt d ugʷmmay Afuniq[8]. Ur ittwassan wakud ɣ d ibayn ugʷmmay alibu-maziɣ, macca ur rad yizwur ifḍ tamzwaru dat n tlalit[9]. Inɣuba ugʷmmay ḍart n walik aɛṛab i tmazɣa ɣ tasuta tiss 8, yamẓ ugʷmmay aɛṛab adɣar n igʷmmayn Alibu-maziɣ d Ulatin[10].

Ttwassannt snat tmzarayin nns: tagumḍant d tutrimt. Tkka tt inn tagmuḍant ar tettusmras ɣ mad igan ɣil ad Qusṭanṭina d tsga n Wawṛas ɣ Ddzayr d Tuns. Nttan a mi ifsi usntl uggar n tmzarayin yaḍn acku ufan t mnnawt tkkal ɣ umnid n usuɣl s Tbuniqt. Zɣ 1843, fsin imrzzutn asntl n 22 zɣ 24 n iskkiln. Tutrimt tga tamnzut uggarn, tṭṭf 13 n uskkil uggar, ig usayrar zɣ Lqbayl tatrart ar Tigzirin n ukanari adɣar g tt inn tkka tettusmras gis.

Ikka tt inn ugʷmmay Alibu-maziɣ iga abjad azddag (ur ar ittzmmim iɣritn). Tussda ur ar tettuzmmam. Ɣ umata, ar ittyura zɣ izddar s uflla, maccan ar nttafa zɣ ufasi s uẓlmaḍ d wiyyaḍ ula nttni[11].

Tifinaɣ n imuzaɣ[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Agʷmmay Alibu-maziɣ ar ittyusmras ass ad s talɣa n Tfinaɣ ɣ tirra n tutlayin n imuzaɣ lli igan zɣ waragg amaziɣ n twja tafṛusyawit. Ttyufan issmrsn imzwura n ugʷmmay ad f kra n tẓuriwin n iẓaggn ɣ mmnaw imḍlan zun d win tgellidt tamazaɣt Tin Hinan[12].

Inna M.C.A. Mac Donald is gan imuzaɣ yan wamun amiwan ɣ iskar umsawaḍ amiwan d tmktit kullu tisɣanin lli tskar tiɣri d tirra ɣ wamun aggag... Tifinaɣ ar bahra ittusmras ɣ tsurarin d igraffitn d tuzinin gzzulnin."

Kra n tikkal, ittusmras ugʷmmay ɣ tirra n kra n tutlayin taddjaṛin zun d Tagdal lli igan zɣ twja yaḍn mi ism "Ṣungay".

Asnmarra[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

tirra n tfinaɣ qdmnin ɣ usit n inɣutn n iẓran n intdnni nna yaẓn i tmdint n ssuq ɣ mali

Ar tmmal twlaft ɣ uzlmaḍ mmnawt tlɣiwin n iskkiln. Mqqar tga tussda timlicant ur ar tettuzmmam ɣ Tfinaɣ. Iggut ma ɣ ar ittmun uskkil t, +, d uskkil nna t iḍfrn ifk anɣ asmsl (ligature).

Azmz azayku[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Afiniq Rhvaf Tifinaɣ n ccaq
Aleph ʾ
Beth b Yab
Gimel g Yag
Daleth d Yad
He h Yah
Waw w Yaw
Zayin z Yaz
Heth Yaḥ
Teth Yaṭ
Yodh y Yay
Kaph k Yak
Lamedh l Yal
Mem m Yam
Nun n Yan
Samekh s Yas
Ayin ε
Pe p,f Yaf
Sade Yaṣ
Qoph q Yaq
Res r Yar
Sin š Yac
Taw t Yat
Yat
j Yaj


Iskkiln[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Wid ad igan iskkiln n tfinaɣ abldi d tfinaɣ atrar:

Yunikud Tuniɣt Tasisklt Talsarit Ism
Alatin GMG (IPA)
U+2D30 2D30.png a æ ya
U+2D31 2D31.png b b yab
U+2D32 2D32.png b β yab amryan
U+2D33 2D33.png g ɡ yag
U+2D34 2D34.png g ɣ yag amryan
U+2D35 2D35.png dj, ǧ d͡ʒ yadj n ugraw amaziɣ
U+2D36 2D36.png dj, ǧ d͡ʒ yadj
U+2D37 2D37.png d d yad
U+2D38 2D38.png d ð yad amryan
U+2D39 2D39.png yaḍ
U+2D3A 2D3A.png ðˤ yaḍ amryan
U+2D3B 2D3B.png e ə yey
U+2D3C 2D3C.png f f yaf
U+2D3D 2D3D.png k k yak
U+2D3E 2D3E.png k k yak n imuzaɣ (Twarg)
U+2D3F 2D3F.png ⴿ k x yak amryan
U+2D40 2D40.png h
b
h


b

yah
= yab n imuzaɣ
U+2D41 2D41.png h h yah n ugraw amaziɣ
U+2D42 2D42.png h h yah n imuzaɣ
U+2D43 2D43.png ħ yaḥ
U+2D44 2D44.png ʕ (ɛ) ʕ yaʕ (yaɛ)
U+2D45 2D45.png kh (x) χ yax
U+2D46 2D46.png kh (x) χ yax n imuzaɣ
U+2D47 2D47.png q q yaq
U+2D48 2D48.png q q yaq n imuzaɣ
U+2D49 2D49.png i i yi
U+2D4A 2D4A.png j ʒ yaj
U+2D4B 2D4B.png j ʒ yaj n Uhaggar
U+2D4C 2D4C.png j ʒ yaj n imuzaɣ
U+2D4D 2D4D.png l l yal
Yunikud Tuniɣt Tasisklt Talsarit Ism
Alatin GMG (IPA)
U+2D4E 2D4E.png m m yam
U+2D4F 2D4F.png n n yan
U+2D50 2D50.png ny nj yagn n imuzaɣ
U+2D51 2D51.png ng ŋ yang n imuzaɣ
U+2D52 2D52.png p p yap
U+2D53 2D53.png u
w
w yu
= yaw n imuzaɣ
U+2D54 2D54.png r r yar
U+2D55 2D55.png yaṛ
U+2D56 2D56.png gh (ɣ) ɣ yaɣ
U+2D57 2D57.png gh (ɣ) ɣ yaɣ n imuzaɣ
U+2D58 2D58.png gh (ɣ)
j
ɣ


ʒ

yaɣ n Ayr
= yaj n Adrar
U+2D59 2D59.png s s yas
U+2D5A 2D5A.png yaṣ
U+2D5B 2D5B.png sh, c (š) ʃ yaš (yac)
U+2D5C 2D5C.png t t yat
U+2D5D 2D5D.png t θ yat amryan
U+2D5E 2D5E.png ch, č (tš) t͡ʃ yatš (yač)
U+2D5F 2D5F.png yaṭ
U+2D60 2D60.png v v yav
U+2D61 2D61.png w w yaw
U+2D62 2D62.png y j yay
U+2D63 2D63.png z z yaz
U+2D64 2D64.png z z Tawellemet yaz
= Harpoon yaz
U+2D65 2D65.png yaẓ
U+2D66 2D66.png e e ye (APT)
U+2D67 2D67.png o o yo (APT)
U+2D6F 2D6F.png +ʷ ʷ Tamatart n uganculwiɣ
≈ <super> 2D61
Isinskiuln
Yunikud Tuniɣt Tasisklt Talsarit Ism
Alatin GMG(IPA)
U+2D5C U+2D59 2D5C.png2D59.png ⵜⵙ ts t͡s yats
U+2D37 U+2D63 2D37.png2D63.png ⴷⵣ dz d͡z yadz
Yunikud Tuniɣt Tasisklt Talsarit Ism
Alatin GMG(IPA)
U+2D5C U+2D5B 2D5C.png2D5B.png ⵜⵛ ch (tš) t͡ʃ yatš
U+2D37 U+2D4A 2D37.png2D4A.png ⴷⵊ dj d͡ʒ yadj
Tasaurt n ikʷlan
Tifinaɣ Tasilant (IRCAM)[13] Tifinaɣ Tamiriwt (IRCAM)[14] Iskkiln n tfinaɣ yaḍnin Iskkilen itrarn n imuzaɣ

unikud[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tetturna tfinaɣ g yunikud g Mars 2005, d wufuɣ n wis 4.1.

Afarra (bloc) n Tfinaɣ g yunikud iga t: U+2D30–U+2D7F.

TifinaɣOfficial Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+2D3x ⴿ
U+2D4x
U+2D5x
U+2D6x              
U+2D7x                               ⵿  

Ẓr ula[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Isaɣuln[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  1. Interview met Karl-G. Prasse. Archived.
  2. Penchoen, Thomas G. (1973). Tamazight of the Ayt Ndhir. Los Angeles: Undena Publications.
  3. Ameur, M., & Iazzi, E. (2006). Graphie et orthographe de l'amazighe. Rabat: Institut royal de la culture amazighe, Centre de l'aménagement linguistique.
  4. Penchoen (1973:3)
  5. O’Connor, Michael (1996). "The Berber scripts". In William Bright; Peter Daniels (eds.). The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 112–116.
  6. D. Vance Smith. "Africa's ancient scripts counter European ideas of literacy". Aeon. Retrieved 2021-06-24.
  7. M.C.A. MacDonald (2005). Elizabeth A. Slater, C.B. Mee and Piotr Bienkowski (ed.). Writing and Ancient Near East Society: Essays in Honor of Alan Millard. T.& T.Clark Ltd. p. 60. ISBN 9780567026910.
  8. Suleiman, Yasir (1996). Language and Identity in the Middle East and North Africa. Psychology Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-7007-0410-1.
  9. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, p. 129
  10. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, p. 129
  11. "Berber". Ancient Scripts. Archived from the original on 2017-08-26. Retrieved 2022-03-06.
  12. Briggs, L. Cabot (February 1957). "A Review of the Physical Anthropology of the Sahara and Its Prehistoric Implications". Man. 56: 20–23. doi:10.2307/2793877. JSTOR 2793877.
  13. "Polices et Claviers Unicode" (s tutlayt fr). IRCAM. http://www.ircam.ma/fr/index.php?soc=telec&rd=3. 
  14. P. Andries, Proposition d'ajout de l'écriture tifinaghe. Organisation internationale de normalisation, Jeu universel des caractères codés sur octets (JUC). ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2 WG, vol.2, p.2739R, 2004.