Tutlayt Tajapunit

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Tutlayt Tajapunit

Tamazirt : Flag of Japan.svg Japun
Adɣar : Tamazirt n Japun
Amḍan n imsawaln : ~128 imlyunen (2020)
Ism n imsawaln : Ijapuniyn
Tawja : Tutlayin tijapuniyn
Agmmay n tirra : Kanji - Kana - Katakana - Hiragana

Isngal n tutlayt
ISO 639-1 : ja
ISO 639-2 : jpn
ISO 639-3 : jpn
Glottolog : nucl1643

Takarḍa
Japanese dialects-en.png

Tajapunit (日本語 nihongo, (ssfld as)) tga yat tutlayt tasyanit n lqblt. Ar sis sawaln 125 n umlyun n middn, ɣ Japun zwar, tamazirt nna ɣ tga tutlayt tanamurt. Tkcm ɣ twja n tutlayin tijapuniyin-tiryukiyin, d ur nssin mad tucka i tutlayin ann yaḍn. Illa mad isman tutlayin tijapuniyin d tutlayt n Aynu, niɣd tutlayt takuriyt, niɣd tutlayt talṭayit, macc ḥtta yat ɣ tannayin ad ur ttawqbal ɣ dar imusnawn.

Tajapunit ur d tucki ɣ tutlayt tacinwit, waxxa ar ttyara s iskkiln nns.[1] Yan ugḍam mqqurn n umawal ajapuni yucka d ɣ tcinwit. Ar ttyara ula s iskkiln yaḍnin ur gin icinwiyn: ism nnsn Hiragana d Katakana.

Amzruy[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Yat tasna ɣ uḍriṣ n Manyucu, yan izli aqbur s tutlayt tajapunit.

Aylli ittussan f tjapunit n uzmz aqbur idrus acku ur ta tkcim tirra s Japun zɣ Cinwa.

Tajapunit taqburt nttat ad igan tikli akk iqburn ittussann n tutlayt ad. Azuzzr n ddin n tbudit nttan ad yiwin angraw n tirra acinwi s Japun. Iḍṛiṣn akk iqburn ɣ Japun ttyuran s tcinwit taklasikit, maca iẓḍaṛ ad ttuɣrn s tjapunit s tɣarast n kanbun. Kra n iḍṛiṣn ad gisn laṭṛ n tjṛṛumt tajapunit, zund anmala n tguriwin (amyag dat n uskkin).

Tajapunit n tuẓẓumt (1185-1573) tbḍa f sin: tin uzmz n Kamakura, d tin uzmz n Murumaci. Azmz n Kamakura (1185-1333) ittussan s samuray d tafyudalit. Azmz ad badln gis imslitn: /au/ infl s /ɔː/, d imsli /p/ ikcm zɣ Cinwa.

Tirra[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Amzruy[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tirra tkcm s Japun s talɣa n ungraw n tirra acinwi, zɣ tmazirt n Bakji dat n tasut tiss 5. Lliɣ txla Bakji tɣra Japun i imusnawn n Cinwa bac ad lmdn uggar f ungraw n tirra acinwi. Imusnawn ad zzuzzrn iskkiln icinwiyn ɣ Japun zɣ tasur tiss 7 ar tasut tiss 8.

Ar tssmras tutlayt tajapunit sin ingrawn n tirra:

  • Ikanjitn
  • Ikanatn (gis Hiragana d Katakana)

Iẓḍar yan ad isnfl ikanatn s kra n tmatarin mẓẓinin bac ad fkn imslitn yaḍnin. Llant snat tmatarin: dakutin (゛) d handakutin (゜). S umdya:

Dakutin[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  • か + dakutin = が ga
  • さ sa → ざ za
  • た ta → だ da
  • は ha → ば ba

Handakutin[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  • ha + handakutin = ぱ pa.

Kana (s hiragana d katakana)[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Japanesekatahira.png

Amawal[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

llan kraḍ iɣbula mqqurnin n umawal ɣ tutlayt tajapunit, yamaṭu kuṭuba (大和言葉) nɣ d wagu (和語), kangu (漢語), d gayraygu (外来語).

Asidf n umawal nna d yuckan ɣ tutlayin n Urupa, gayraygu, ibda d urṭṭal zɣ tabṛṭqqizt ɣ tasut tiss 16. Dffir, ibda uṛṭṭal zɣ thulanḍiyt (ar as ttinin s tjapunit: rangaku, 蘭学) ɣ uzmz n Iḍo. Lliɣ tnnurẓm Japun ɣ uzmz n Miji ɣ tasut tiss 19 ibda uṛṭṭal zɣ tutlayin ad: talimant, tafṛansist d tanglizt. Ɣilad tutlayt tanglizt ad igan aɣbalu izwarn nna yakkan tiguriwin i tutlayt tajapunit.

Tinml[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tisdawiyin timqranin ɣ umaḍal as ssaqrant tutlayt tajapunit. Ula kra n tinmal n imẓyanen ar ssaqrant tutlayt ad. Ɣayad ibadl bahra f uzmz dat n uqryan amaḍlan wiss sin, lliɣ ɣar 65 n umirikni issn i ad yara d ad yaqqra d ad irms tutlayt ad.[2]

Isaɣuln[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  1. Deal, William E. (2005). Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Infobase Publishing. p. 242.
  2. Sotomayor, Denzel Washington, GE CEO Speak to Graduates.

Ẓr ula[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

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