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Anawn n uɣṛum

Aɣṛum iga yat tirmt tamatayt ittuskarn s uggurn d waman, d ila s umata tisnt. Ɣ umzruy, iga tirmt izwarn akk ɣ bahra n tmizar. Nttat ad igan tirmt akk iqburn ittuskarn s ufus n ufgan, d istuhmma bahra zɣ ussnti n uzmz n tfllaḥt. Iṭṭaf ula tiwuriwin tidlsanin yaḍn (tunnunt, timyurin... ).

Aɣṛum iẓḍar ad ixmr s imikrubn, niɣ s ikimitn, niɣ s uswḍu nna ittsuffun aɣṛum. Ɣ mnnawt n tmizar, aɣṛum n ugadaz ar gis ittili timrniwin nna as isnfaln aklu, tudrt, asyufu, d tɣawsiwin yaḍnin.

Ar ittwwu uɣṛum ɣ ufrnu aqbur niɣ afrnu igan win aɣṛum, niɣ tiɣarasin yaḍn (s umdya: iẓṛan rɣanin). Askkir n uɣṛum iga tawuri n buɣṛum. D buɣṛum ula nttan ar izznza aɣṛum.

Abrbr iga taɣarast akk iqburn n uskkir n utci. Buɣṛum iga t amskar n uɣṛum.

Ifrdisn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Yan wanaw n uɣṛum ɣ Tuns gis tmatart n taẓṛẓit d tmatart n tafust.

Ifrdisn ucciln n uɣṛum:

  • Aggurn
  • Tuxmirt
  • Tisnt
  • Aman

D ɣ kraygat wanaw illa mad ittrnun: Tiglay, Akʷfay, Askkaṛ, Tudit, Azatim.

Asmuttg[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tanfalit[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Iṭṭaf uɣṛum isqquln ɣ dar id buɣṛum izzulann: Agḍam n waman ɣ uɣṛum nttan ad asqqul akk istuhmman ɣ uskkir n uɣṛum, acku iṭṭaf laṭṛ f talɣa n uɣṛum. Irdn iqqurn ar issumum 62% n waman, macc irdn isdidn ɣas 56%. Tuggt n id buɣṛum ar ttggan ngr 60% d 75% n waman. 500 gram n uggurn ar yakka snat tkumirin.

Tiklitin n usmuttg n uɣṛum.

Aggurn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Aggurn iga t irdn iẓḍan. Aggurn ar yakka talɣa izwarn n uɣṛum. Ar as yakka ula aprutin lli rad gis yili. Tumayt n uprutin ɣ uggurn nttat ad immaln bahra tayufa n lɛjint n uɣṛum d ula aɣṛum iwwan. Waxxa nẓḍar ad nskr aɣṛum s kraygat wanaw n uɣṛum, yuf ad tili tumayt n uprutin ngr 12% d 14%.

Aggurn ar ittuxlaḍ d tuxmirt d tisnt. Tisnt (akluṛid n uṣudyum) ar ttrnu tamimt n uɣṛum d ar tssidrus tawuri n tuxmirt. Ar tswuri ula f talɣa tamatayt n uɣṛum s ussidus n uglutin. Kra n id buɣṛum ar ffaln tisnt, niɣ ar as ttggan dffir 20 n tusdidt bac ad isunfu, ɣayad ar ittaws i tawṭulizt (autolyse) n lɛjint.

Aswḍu[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Aɣṛum iswḍan iga t iɣ ixmr s usinuksid n ukaṛbun. Zɣ tuẓẓumt n tasut tiss 19, ittwassn wanaw ad n uɣṛum s tɣarast n uswḍu ɣ Tgldit Imunn. Tamssurt n Uɣṛum Iswḍn (Aerated Bread Company) ad tt yadlli iskarn, tzznz gis bahra. Tbda tmssurt ad ɣ usggʷas n 1862, tbdd ɣ usggʷas n 1955.

Tawuri n uglutin ɣ uskkir n uɣṛum[1][ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Aglutin d ugliyadin gan iprutinn ittyafan ɣ uɣṛum. Aglutin nttan ad iskarn aẓṭṭa n uɣṛum s tɣarast n tilggʷitin usulfid. Aglutin illa bahra ɣ irdn. Ɣayad ad yujjan middn ad bahra ssmrasn irdn f tumẓin.

Amzruy[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Azmz aqbur[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ɣ Miṣṛa[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ar nttini is ibayn uɣṛum ɣ dar imiṣṛiyn. Nttni ad yufan is iɣ tsmrkst irdn ẓḍanin s wanan n Unil ar ttuff lɛjint. Ɣ usggʷas n 300 dat n lmasiḥ, ibda uskkir n tuxmirt ɣ dar id buɣṛum insbaɣurn n Miṣṛa.

Ɣ Ṛuma[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Aɣṛum ɣ Pompay.

Ula ɣ dar iṛumiyn, aɣṛum iga tirmt n kraygat ass, ntta d tgulla. Ɣ uzmz n Ṭrajan, ibda usslmd n uskkir n uɣṛum. Ɣayad yujja id buɣṛum ad igutn ɣ uzmz nns. Ibdr Plin Aqbur, is ɣ uzmz n Ugust, illa uggar n 329 n id buɣṛum ɣ Ruma.[2]

Aɣṛum ittyafan ɣ Pompay ttubḍant s tɣarast n igrikiyn f igzman.

Anawn n uɣṛum[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Iẓḍaṛ ad inaḥya uɣṛum s wanaw n uggurn lli s ittuskar niɣ adɣar lliɣ iwwa. S umdya:

  • Aɣṛum n tumẓin ittuskar s tumẓin.
  • Aɣṛum n ufrnu inwa ɣ ufrnu.

Anawn yaḍnin[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Yan wanaw infln n uɣṛum ism nns abazin
Briyuc
  • Abazin: Iga yan wanaw n uɣṛum n ɣ libya. Ar ittuskar s tumẓin d waman d tisnt.
  • Brioche: Yan wanaw n uɣṛum afṛanṣiṣ. Ar gis ttggan tiglay d tudit bac ad izggʷaɣ bahra ɣ bṛṛa nns

Amawal[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  • levure : amtun
  • blé : irdn
  • afrdis : ingrédient
  • arktu: mélange
  • uccil: obligatoire

Isɣann ibṛṛaniyn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  • (s tnglizt) Amzruy igzzuln n uɣṛum, History.com (asɣn)

Tiɣbula[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  1. https://www.bakeinfo.co.nz/Facts/Gluten/What-role-does-gluten-play-in-bread-making-
  2. Pliny Aqbur (1938). Natural History. Loeb Classics. p. 1.255.