Andriyya dil Virrukyu

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Andriyya dil Virroccio
Andrea del Verrocchio
The Portrait of Verrocchio.jpg
Tawlaft n Andrea del Verrocchio zzv dar Nicolas de Larmessin.
Umlan inimann
Talalit 1435, Flurinsa
Tamttant 7 uktubr 1488, Vinizya
Ism n tlallit Andrea di Michele Cioni
Tamazirt Flag of Italy.svg Ṭṭalyan
Tudrt
Tawuri Amkla, Anaẓuṛ, Amsdag
Aslmad Giuliano Verrochi, Donatello
Amussu Talslalit Taṭalyanit

Andriyya dil Virroccio nɣ s tutlayt tatalyanit : Andrea del Verrocchio (attayn n. 1435 – 1488) ikka-t-nn iga yan "sculptor" aṭalyan, adhaybi ig ula amkla. Tkka-tt-nn dars yat tsawrt ilan addur ammas n Flurinsa.

Kkan-t-nn gis kigan d yimklawn yaḍnin n tlslalit ar ttlmadn dar Verrocchio, yili gisn mad gis iswurrin. Rad naf zgitsn yan mnnaw zun d Botticelli, Ghirlandaio d ula Perugino. Amḥḍar n Verrocchio akkʷ ittyawssann iga-t Leonardo da Vinci.

Madonna d Urba, attayen n. 1470, tasawert n Verrocchio. New York, Asalay Aɣerman n Tẓuri.

Tudrt nns[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ilul d Verrocchio ɣ Flurinsa asggʷas 1435. Ibba-s Michele di Francesco Cioni, ikka-t-inn yad-lli ar iswurri ɣ uyajuṛ d uqrmid ar tn isgadda, issnfl tawuri nns yaɣul ig "tax collector" ḍarat-as. Iswurri dar tawja n id bu ibankiwn Ayt Medici, fad ilmma immutti s Vinisya.

Verrocchio lliɣ d ilul, gan as s yism Andrea di Francesco di Cioni. Snfln-as ism-nns s Andrea del Verrocchio lliɣ ibda ar ittlmad dar yan uhkkac (adhaybi) igan s yism Verrocchio (irwas is d nttan nit ad igan Francesco di Luca Verrocchio, yan unsbaɣur bahra imursn ɣ wussan nns). Amm yan dars ittḥḍarn, ilmd dars Verrocchio manmk s ar ttyawsakrnt tzuzaf d yirukutn n wurɣ zun d iṭbsiln, iɣṛṛafn d yiqṛɛay n tisnt. Ilmd manmk s ar ssufuɣn ɣ wurɣ; yan wanaw n twriqin tusdidin ar asnt ttinin "afriw n wurɣ", d usmrs nnsnt ɣ mad izdin d zzwaq n yisutay n twlafin, isfrisn d ɣaylli mu ttinin "illuminated manuscripts". Ilmd daɣ manmk s ar snulfun/ttṣwwabn isfrisn n ubrunẓ. Ukan, taɣawsa ad igguran a's bahra ittyawssan nttan.

Tizi ad, immaggar Verrocchio nttan d Donatello. Yaɣul Donatello iga yan zzɣ "sculptors" akkʷ ttyawssannin. Anck lli sul iskr ɣ yisfrisn yuti isfrisn n Verrocchio. Is ka, Donatello d Verrocchio s sin-itsn sgaddan yan usfris n David ilan ixf n Goliath, s sin-itsn daɣ sgaddan yan usfris ixatrn n yan usrdas (aɛskṛi) ittyawssann; issudan ayyis-nns (asfris igan win imnayn). Kigan n tikkal, ar sngaddan imussnawn n umzruy d ar ssmzazaln gr sin yisfrisn-ad n yimnayn.

Verrocchio, ur jju itahl, mac ikka-t-nn ar ittazzal meqqar; f ayt tewja-nnes yaḍnin. Idrus mad ittyawssanen f tudert-nnes, abla mas ilmed dar Fra Filippo Lippi akkʷ ayenn iqqnen s teklut, d mas ar tetturruyent tiwuriwin-nnes tireslanin s yiseggʷasen-nnes simraw imeggura, d mla d is ur d takessa n Lorenzo de Medici d iwwi-s Piero, ur inni ad izzigiz mani. Ikka-t-nn yamu ula netta ɣ "Guild" n St Luke (Luke Agʷrram), kkan-d tsawert-nnes kigan ɣ yinaẓuren keswatnin. Tiwuriwin n kra ɣ yinelmaden-ad-nnes zund Domenico Ghirlandaio, Francesco Botticelli d Pietro Perugino, iceqqa ad ten-tssengarad d twuriwin n Verrocchio s yixf-nnes.

Ɣ tgiriwin n tudert-nnes, ifel Verrocchio i Lorenzo di Credi tasawert-nnes n Flurinsa, irẓem-d netta ṭayya ɣ Vinisya, mani ɣ ikka ar iswurri f usefris n Bartolomeo Colleoni. Immut ɣ Vinisya aseggʷas n 1488. Ar ittyawḥasab Andrea mas iga yan zeɣ yimezwura usridnin n umessenti (entrepreneur) awṭalyan, Paul M. Verrochi.

Tiflwin nns[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Addum n Umasiḥ, 1474-1475, Verrocchio d Leonardo da Vinci.
Amasiḥ d Thomas. Agʷrram, Orsanmichelle, Flurinsa.

Ar ittyawnna mas ibda Verrocchio ar ikllu ɣ yisggʷasn n id 1460, lliɣ iswurri ɣ ammas n Prato nttan d umkla Fra Filippo Lippi. Yat tflwit ittyawssann ilan asinyatur n Verrocchio k'ad illan. Ad tt-igan d yat "l'altarpiece" ɣ tlla Madonna nttat d wazzan-nns munan d yigʷrramn ɣ ammas n tkatidraliyt n Pistoia, tettyawkla tigira n id 1470. LLant sul yan mnnawt tflwin-yaḍnin sɣ ustudyu n Verrocchio. Irwas ukan is gi-sn ikʷla Verrocchio kra; klun gi-sn daɣ imḥḍarn-nns kra yaḍni.

Taflwit akkʷ gi-snt ittyawssan, tettyawskar gr 1472 d 1475. Ad tt-igan d Addum n Umasiḥ. Izmmim Giorgio Vasari ɣ warra-nns igan s uzwl Tudrt n Inaẓurn Ikswatn; mas d anglus lli d-yuckan f uzlmaḍ ikʷla-t Leonardo da Vinci. Ar gi-s daɣ ittals Vasari f Verrocchio, mas d lliɣ irura unggaru-ad taɣʷḍft s umḥḍar-nns yiw-s n mraw d tam yisggʷasn d tmfkit-ann-nns bahra ihyyan ɣ tklut; isrs d akkʷ nttan taccitat-nns s yat tklit, ur jju d nttan ad sul ikʷlan kra ɣ tudrt-nns. Iɣ as-izzri yan s usnɣd, irad yakʷz mas d amata ɣ tflwit ittyawkla s yat tmamkt n "tempera" igan tazaykut, imil anglus, kra n yigzzumn ɣ tfkka n Ɛisa, d umuɣli-ann n tɣʷrdin kulci-tn ttyawklan s yat tattiqnit n tklut tazitiyt igan tamaynut. Ar ittajja mayad imussnawn n umzruy n tẓuri ad inin d yixfawn-nnsn mas iswurri Leonardo f yan mnnaw yigzzumn sɣ tugna-ad. Ittufka awd yan usumr n mas ikʷla Botticini wis-sin anglus.

"Sculpteurs"[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Isnulfa-d Verrochio snat tɣawsiwin zɣ uẓru, yan utabut (cercueil) d yan usarid (lavabo). Ar ittuyanna mas isrm altu yat Madonna d Ubijju s low relief (yat tɣarast n ufrs, asrɣet nɣ d asrm ɣ ar ittuman design zund is ira ad d-iffuɣ zɣ surface-nns, s yat tfsna ixatrn "high relief" nɣ d yat idrusn "low relief").

Ttyawskarn "sculptures" n Verrocchio akkʷ ttyawssannin s ubrunẓ nna igan yan wanaw n umɣuz (métal). D afad ad d-isnulfu yan usfris n ubrunẓ, ista Verrocchio ad t-ixdm s tkira (cire). Iskr-as s izwar "plâtre" iggi-nns afad ad as-ifk yan "moule" ḍart mad t ttkkis, issrɣ-as i umɣuz-ann ɣ yan ufarnu ar kiɣ kullu ifsi yaɣul iga (liquid). Issuga umɣuz ifsin ɣ "mould" yajj-t-nn ad ikrm s ttawil-nns. Ḍart mad ikks "plâtre", yaff-nn usfris nns n ubrunẓ yujad, ur as iɣama min "finition" d ujrak (polissage)

Tawwuri ɣ San Lorenzo[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tekka-tt-nn tga Taglizt n San Lorenzo (Lawrence Agʷrram) yat teglizt n umaynu ɣ Flurinsa. Iṣka-tt umesdag Brunelleschi s tmamekt n Tleslatit igan tamaynut ɣakud-ann. Kkan-t-nn Ayt Medici gan imasayen-nnes akkʷ dar illa waddur, stan Verrocchio zund sculptor-nnsen nna rad gi-s iswurin f kraḍ yisenfaren.

Isnulfa-d Verrocchio ɣ 1465 yan usarid i tmeṣriyt-ann n San Lorenzo (nna mi tinin ɣilad "Old Sacristy"), ɣ ttilin iheddumen d yirukuten n "Communion". Ittusrem-as i ufella n usarid-nna yan yigider, ittgensasen azamul n John Agʷrram Awenjil (St. John the Evangelist). Ittusrem-as i udis-nnes "coat of arms" n Ayt Medici. Tettufka-as ɣakud-ann i Verrocchio yat temhelt iẓlin s "désigne" n yan umḍel i Cosimo, "banker" ittyawssanen d jedd-is n Ayt Medici.

Ɣ tezwiri n temrawant n 1470, ikellef-t Lorenzo de Medici s temhelt n "désigne" n umḍel n baba-s Piero d ɛemm-is Giovanni. Ikka-t-nn umḍel-ann nna as-"designer" Verrocchio iga "unusual". Isnulfa-as-d yan "sarcophagus" (atabut n uẓru) imeqquren zeɣ yan uẓru "rouge-foncé" igan afalkay, "trimmed" s uẓru azegzaw d yifrawen "sculptured" s ubrunẓ. Ɣ udɣar n ad as-isker yan "design" n ɣmk-nna bedda ɣ ittili utabut izdi d uɣrab, isker-as nettan yan "désigne" yaḍen t-ittajjan ad nn-yili ɣ tuẓẓumt n usaka ittawin s "Sacristy". Isgadda-as Verrocchio yan uzeṭṭa n ubṛunz itettumanen zund is ittyawskar s yizakaren.

Amasiḥ d Thomas Agʷrram[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Taglizt akkʷ igan "unusual" ɣ ammas n Flurinsa ɣakud-ann tga-tt taglizt n Orsanmichele. Tga yad-lli tuṣka-a tin yan ugadaz n usengar mi ittyawkla usalas s tugna tatigant n Madonna d Urba. Ittusenfel ugadaz-a s teglizt, dlen-as idisan-nnes s yiɣerban. Kkan-t-nn dar yiɣerban-nnes kra n tburjutin (niches) ganin uɣizen, mani ɣ ttafan ad sbidden isefrisen. Swurrin kigan n mdden ɣ ammas n Flurinsa ɣ tazzulin mzaraynint, amunen midden-a kullu ɣ mnnawt tmaddasin mi tinin "guilds". Ikka-t-nn ar ittiri kraygatt guild azalan ɣ tmdint ad nn dar-s yili usefris n ugʷrram-nnes apaṭrun ɣ yat zeɣ tburjutin-ann n Oransmichele. Kkan-t-nn ar ttyawskaren isefrisen-a s yifassen n yimayafen n "sculptor".

Isfrisn-nns[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Isgadda Verrocchio snat tɣawsiwin fulkinin sɣ ammas uẓru, yan utabut (coffin) d yan usarid (washbasin). Ar daɣ ttinin mas isrm ula yat Madonna d Wazzan s tmamakt n "low relief".

Isfrisn n Verrocchio akkʷ dar-s ttyawssannin, ttyawskarn s ubrunẓ, nna igan yan wanaw ɣ lmɛdn.

Izdayn yaḍnin[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

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