Tutlayt Taɛibrit

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Tutlayt Taɛibrit (s tɛibrit tatrart: עִבְרִית ivrit, s tɛibrit tazaykut: : לשון הקודש lacun ha qudic) tga yat tutlayt zɣ tutlayin tifrusyawiyin iḍfarn i tawja n tutlayin tisamiyin. Ɣilad, taɛibrit tatrart ar tt sawaln uggar n 9 id mlyun n mddn ɣ umaḍal: 5 id mlyun gisn llan ɣ Israyil d Ikalln Ifaliṣṭiniyn; d umḍan (lɛadad) n tẓṛigin nna ttffuɣnin ɣ tmazirt taɛibrit iskr gis tiss 2 ɣ uswir agraɣlan (amaḍlan), tuti (tzri) sis aynna ittffuɣn ɣ tmizar timslaɛṛabin akkʷ!

Amzruy[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tga Taɛibrit tutlayt n udlis n udayn, Lliɣ d kcmn Ibabyluniyn s Jirizalim, taramit tuɣal yat zɣ tutlayin n wat Israyil. Ass nna ɣ d kcmnt Irumiyn, Udayen ddan s lɣuṛba d kraygat yan ma s idda, tmun didsn tutlayt nsen aylliɣ tkka akk tmizar n umaḍal...

Ɣ tlallit n sionism ɣ Urupa, imussnawn udayen ssidirn tutlayt nnsn, aylliɣ tgq ɣila tutlayt tunṣibt n tmazirt n udayen akk nttat d taɛrabt ɣ Israyil.

Tanfust (tanqqist) n tɛibrit ur tli anaw, d iɣ nra ad tt nini ɣ yat tguri, tamggarut ad ur rad tg amr: TUZZANT! (TAMKRRA), Ar ttinin imsnilsn mas d tutlayt tga zun d afgan, ar d tettlal, timɣur, twssr, tmmt. Ur jju d yurri kra n ufgan zɣ tmttant s tudrt! yawn? Iwa hat taɛibrit tdwl d zɣ tmttant s tudrt!

Amzruy aqbur[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Uwin d imassann n umzruy mas tt nn tkka tutlayt ad ɣ tmazirt n Knɛan s dat ad tili tgldit n Dawd d Sliman, ar sawaln mddn s tntaliwin nns ɣ tudrt nnsn takuyast; tantaliwin ad a s tettyara Ttawrat (adlis lli akkʷ ilan atig dar wudayn) tg ula tutlayt n ddin nnsn; ɣumun iɛibriyn ar sawaln tutlayt nnsn, aylliɣ tlkm tasut tiss 2 dffir tlalit n Ɛisa: ur sul tgi tɛibrit tutlayt taymmat n wudayn, taɣul d tutlayt tasgdant ka (tin tẓallit d warratn n iḥzzann); tmmt! Tamẓ taṛamit adɣar nns dar iɛibriyn.

Amzruy nna ur bahra yaggugn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tqqim tɛibrit ɣ timḍlt nns, tasutin f tasutin, qqimn tarwa nns ar sawaln tutlayin n tmizar nna ɣ zdɣn, nɣ d kra n tntaliwin zund tɛibrmaziɣt, taɛibraɛṛabt, taɛibrṣbnyult, tayddict, atg.; aylliɣ d yuman (ibayn), gr tasut tiss 18 d tiss 19, yan umussu n uswingm uday, s yism n “Haskala” (asgmi s tɛibrit), lli d yugmn zɣ Umussu n Tafatin ; ɣ umzwaru, ttwassnnt twngimin n umussu n Haskala gr wudayn n tmazirt n Aliman, lqqfn tnt ilmma aytmatn nnsn ɣ tmizar yaḍnin n Uṛubba, ḍfṛn tn ula udayn n Lmɣrib d win tmizar n imuslmn.

Tmukrisin lli tn dars ikkan[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Bla ad nkcm ɣ ɣaylli d yusan ɣ twngimin s ufruri, yuda aɣ ma izdin d tutlayt: iqqan aɣ d ɣ umzwaru ad nini mas tt nn kkan wudayn iradikaliyn llan mgal n ussmrs (listiɛmal) n tɛibrit ɣ tirra nna ur igin tasgdant, mac mqqar ɣaya, ssntan imaratn n umussu n Haskala ar ttaran s tɛibrit kra n tnfas tiqburin zɣ uzmz n Ttawrat, ukan ur ufin ula kra n umukris; mac, ɣar ssntan tirra f isntln (lmawaḍiɛ) imirann (n tizi ann ɣ ddrn), yicqqu nit fllasn ad smdn, acku Ttawrat ur gis utint tguriwin 8000 n yat (2000 sigsnt ttunnant 1 tikklt ɣ Ttawrat, d iẓuṛan n tguriwin ur utin 500 n yan), d ur tt nn kkin imawaln lli rad yaws ɣ usuɣl n idlisn n tussna d tusnakt. Ufan imaratn yan umukris yaḍn: kkan tt nn ar asn qqarn ɣar kra n mddn drusnin, gn akkʷ irgazn mi iktur yixf; ima timɣarin d irgazn nna ur bahra ɣrinin, kkan tt nn ar qqarn taskla tayddict, ɣaylli yujjan tugtt n imaratn ad aran s tyddict afad ad darsn yili ugdud iggutn.

Skrn imassann n Haskala tawuri nnsn, ssudrn d taskla taɛibrit, ldin d sis tutlayt zɣ uẓkka nns, mqqar ukan sul tmmut; Aylliɣ d idda umssudr lli tt id issnkrn zɣ tmttant: Iliɛiẓaṛ Bn Yahuda.

Iliɛiẓaṛ Bn Yahuda[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Iliɛiẓaṛ Bn Yahuda ɣ usggwas n 1905

Ilul d Iliɛiẓaṛ Bn Yahuda s yism n Iliɛiẓaṛ Isḥaq Birlman Ilyanuf ɣ tgldit n Rusya (Bilarusya ɣilad), asggʷas n 1858, ɣ ugnsu n yat tawja tudayt taḥasidit (taradikalit) isawaln s tyddict; igugl (zɣ babas) lliɣ iṭṭf 5 isggʷasn, tajjt innas d xalis; izzri tamẓit nns zund akkʷ inggʷa nns udayn ɣ tɣri d ulmad n idlisn n usgd (ddin) uday (Ttawrat, Micna d Utlmud), ilmma ilmd tafṛanṣiṣt, talimant d trusiyt, ɣaylli t yujjan ad ikcm d umussu aṣhyuni, yaf nn gis mas d assudr n tutlayt taɛibrit ɣ wakal n Israyil a rad ismun akkʷ udayn n umaḍal.

Izzri Bn Yahuda 4 isggʷasn ɣ Bariz (Fṛanṣa), iɣr tasnijjit (tasnḍbibt) ɣ tsdawit n Ṣurbun, iɣr ula amzruy d tsrtit n Ugmmuḍ Anammas (Lqblt n tuẓẓumt); yan wass, immiggir d yan wuday ggʷ Yirucalayim (Lquds), isawl dids s tɛibrit; assmrs ad n tɛibrit ɣ wawal, ad t issnẓan (iqnɛn) mas tẓḍar tutlayt ad ad d tdwl s tudrt, tg tutlayt n uɣrf (ccɛb) aysrayili.

Ɣ usggʷas n 1881, rad izug Bn Yahuda ntta d tmɣart nns tamzwarut (igan taslmadt n trusiyt) s Yirucalayim ɣ Faliṣṭin Taɛutmanit; rad ɣinn ifsr yan ulɣu (liɛlan) nna ɣ da ittini mas d iqqan taɛibrit ad tg tutlayt n tinmal n tmazirt; imikk, rad ilmma ig aslmad n tɛibrit ɣ tinml n umulli aysrayli aẓuran ɣ Yirucalayim (ar isslmad taɛibrit s tɛibrit, nican, bla asuɣl), imikk daɣ rad isnflul kra n tmsmunin (zund “Tixyat Israyil”, “Cafa Birura” d “Ba Ad Halacun”), d ad ur nttu Takadimit n Tutlayt Taɛibrit nna iskr (tsul tlla ar ɣassa) afad ad issktr (ntta d imassann yaḍnin) taɛibrit s irmawn (lmuṣṭalaḥat) nna ur gis llinin.

Ɣ tgmmi nns, icṛḍ Iliɛiẓaṛ f tmɣart nns ad sar sul ur sawln kra n tutlayt abla taɛibrit, mqqar imsar aynna imsarn; yan wass yufa tamɣart nns ar tettɣnnaj i iwis yat tzlit tarusiyt, ibṛṛm nit gis, yini as ad sar sul ur tals i tigawt ann. Lliɣ as tmmut tmɣart ad (Dibuṛa) s waṭṭan n turin, tujja as 5 igugiln, mmtn gisn 3 s waṭṭan n diftirya, ikk 6 wayyurn yawl xaltis n warrawn nns: Ximda.

Ɣ usgmi n iwis (nna mi ismma Bn Ṣhyun), ikka tt nn ur ar t ittajja ad yurar ɣ tsukt, nɣ d ad imun d tarwa yaḍnin, acku ur ar sawaln taɛibrit, ayad ad yujjan Bn Ṣhyun ad iddukkl d uydi nns (nna mi ismma Mahir); asgmi ad ad iskrn zɣ urba ad “Afgan Amzwaru” nna mi tga tɛibrit tatrart (taɛaṣṛit) tutlayt taymmat.

Mqqar tt nn ikka walay (ttaqddum) ad iẓẓay, ilin imarawn (lwalidin) uginin ad lmdn warrawn nnsn yat tutlayt nna rad asn ur yawsn ɣ usslmd anaflla; waxxa mkann, ismd sul Bn Yahuda tanaɣa nns, lli d issntan ilmma ar takka tayafut: ɣ usggʷas n 1902, ilkm wuṭṭun n tawjiwin nna issmrasn ɣar taɛibrit –ilkm- 10 (n tawjiwin); ima ɣ usggʷas n 1903, i tikklt tamzwarut, ɣ umsasa gr wudayn n Israyil, rad yili umrara n wawal s tɛibrit!

Icnga (iɛdawn) n twngimt ad n ussudr n tɛibrit[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Bddn wudayn iradikaliyn n Uṛubba mgal ussmrs n tɛibrit ɣ ɣaynna ur izdin s tẓallit d usgd, iwa hat ula udayn iradikaliyn n Israyil (slawan akkʷ imzdaɣn inṣliyn da ur ginin iṣhyuniyn) bddn s wuzzal d tmssi mgal usnfar nɣ lmcṛuɛ n Iliɛiẓaṛ, ṣṛḍn (actkan) sis dar unbbaḍ nɣ lḥakm aɛutmani aturkiy lli t iqqnn ɣ ubniq ɣ usggʷas n 1894, ikk nn gis yan mnnaw wayyurn, ilmma ssufɣn t id imddukkal nns. Itturgl as ula uɣmis (ljarida) nns, uggar n usggʷas, yaf nn iman nns ifrd ɣar ntta d yan mnnaw imddukkal, ayad ad t yujjan ad ig afus nns ɣ ufus n Hirtzil (babas n tṣhyunit) afad ad yaf wi t isnaln ɣ twuri.

Imikk s imikk, ssntan middn ar ttfrakn s watig n tutlayt nnsn (mqqar akkʷ ur tgi tutlayt nnsn taymmat), ar d ilmma skarn amzgun (lmṣṛḥ), aẓawan, anzway (aṛadyu), iɣmisn, turtitin tiɛibriyin n imẓyann; ar akkan mddn i tarwa nnsn ismawn iɛibriyn, ar qqarn waṛṛaḍn taskla, timassanin, tusnakt d tetiknulujiyt s tɛibrit. Ɣ 1916, kkan tt nn 40% ɣ wudayn n Israyil ar ttinin mas darsn tga tɛibrit tutlayt tamzwarut, tigmiḍi ad ar tettawḍ (tlkkm) 75% ɣ Tal Abib d idɣarn yaḍnin nna ɣ drusn wudayn iradikaliyn (tqqim tmdint n Yirucalayim d iɣrm aradikali nna ɣ bahra idrus wawal s tɛibrit).

Imnɣi n tutlayin[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Yat lblaka illan ɣ Israyil ittyuran s Tɛibrit d Tɛtabt d Ulatin

Ur tt nn ikki usslmd n tɛibrit iẓli ɣas s imẓyann nna mi rad tg tutlayt taymmat, mac ula middn mqqurnin, slawan akkʷ wida d usanin zɣ bṛṛa n Israyil; acku, ad ur nttu mas tt nn tkka yat tɣnnant iqsḥn gr tɛibrit zɣ yat tsga d tfṛanṣiṣt, tanglizit d talimant zɣ tsga yaḍn; ɣayad rad yawḍ ayda mi nttini ɣ umzruy n Israyil: “Imnɣi n Tutlayin”, slawan akkʷ gr tɛibrit d talimant, zun d lliɣ tt nn tkka rad tettuṛẓm tsdawit tatiknit n Ḥayfa ɣ usggʷas n 1913 (talli ittwassnn ɣilad ɣ umaḍal s yism n Tixnyun), tmun tmhla (liḍaṛa) n tsdawit ɣ Birlin, tini mas rad ttwaslmdnt tmassanin titikniyin s talimant; nkrn mddn ar sɣuyyun f tɣtast (lqarar) ad: slgn inlmadn d islmadn n Ḥayfa d Tal Abib tiɣri (skrn liḍṛab), ssutrn ad tg tɛibrit tutlayt tamyiwnt (lwaḥida) n usslmd d tɣri. Ɣ umggaru, dffir kigan n tɣnnant, tnnuṛẓm tsdawit, s tɛibrit ka. S trnnawt ad, rad tssdus tɛibrit iman nns, tsrs yan uḍaṛ ɣ umaḍal n tdlsa tatrart, d tetiknulujiyt.

10 n isggʷasn dffir ɣayad, ɣ 1924, tṛẓm Tsdawit n Yirucalayim tiwwura nns, tg gis tɛibrit tutlayt n ulmad d usslmd; ima Asinag n Wizman lliɣ issnta ɣ 1934, ur akkʷ sul illi wi isqsan matta tutlayt a s rad tili tɣri.

Ɣ usggʷas n 1922, rad tssnṣb (tṛṣṣm) tnbaḍt tabṛiṭaniyt tutlayt taɛibrit (tama n tnglizit d taɛṛabt) zund tutlayt n tmssugurt (lidaṛa), aylli rad daɣ ifk i tutlayt ad yan wazal imqqurn, acku taẓḍurt n uwank (ddula) ur tt saswa d tin mddn. Ɣ tmdinin zund Tal Abib (tamdint taɛibrit tamzwarut), iskr Bn Ṣhyun (iwis n Bn Yahuda) yan umzizzl (lḥmla): wanna isllan i kra n yan ar isawal s kra n tutlayt yaḍn, ar as ittini “wa aɛibri, sawl taɛibrit”.

Iliɛiẓaṛ daɣ[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ad daɣ nurri s Iliɛiẓaṛ, nsskti d mas issnta yan usnfar zɣ 1901 aylliɣ immut (s waṭṭan n turin) ɣ Yirucalayim ɣ tgira n 1922: “Milun Halacun Haɛibrit Haɛicana Bihaxadaca” (Amawal n tutlayt taɛibrit taqburt d tetrart); amawal ad rad gis issufɣ 7 isunaḍ (igʷzman) s dat tmttant nns, tssufɣ tmɣart nns d iwis Ihud 9 isunaḍ nni qqimnin ɣ usggʷas n 1959. Amawal ad irna gis kigan n irmawn d tguriwin tinulfa (Néologismes) da iṛḍl zɣ taɛṛabt (s waṭṭaṣ), taṛamit taqburt, talatinit taqburt, tanglizit, tarusiyt, talimant, tafṛanṣiṣt, atg.

Immut Bn Yahuda, tɣama d tɛibrit, ɣaman dids warrawn nns yaḍnin lli tt swurinin (xdmnin), slawan akkʷ lliɣ d ilula uwank n Israyil ɣ 1949, nbḍn wudayn ixfawn nnsn, skrn zɣ tɛibrit tutlayt tamzwarut n Israyil (nnig taɛṛabt d tnglizit).

Tirra[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

ẓer Agmmay aɛibri
Tirra n tutlayt Taɛibrit

Ittuysxdam agmmay aɛibri ɣ tirra n tɛibrit. Llan gis 22 n Iskkiln. Iga agemmay Abjd zund Agmmay aɛrabAgmmay alibi (Tifinaɣ n zik). Iskkiln nns d asusru n zik, asusru n ddin, d asusru n ɣila ɣ tɛibrit tisrayilt.

Amzruy n ugmmay ad[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Askkil ad imsar as zund aynna ittmsarn i tfinaɣ ɣilad: kigan n iysrayiliyn iyckinaziyn (lli d ddanin zɣ tmizar n Uṛubba, Rusya d Mirikan) ad tt nn kkanin ran ad gn askkil alatini (lli myarn) ɣ udɣar n uskkil aɛibri, mac mmiggirn d yat tnzbayt nna ifrsn kigan zɣ dar imnɛaṛn n uskkil aɛibri.

Yadlli! Askkil ur dars ma s rad isbiḍṛ tutlayt taɛibrit, d ig ddad nssudr yat tutlayt immutn, ad nit dids nssudr ula askkil nns, ḥuma ad ng tififlt i taṭṭajint, nsfalki tt sis uggar.

Iɣbula[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

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Isaɣuln

  1. Taɛibrit - . Ethnologue.