Lyunardu da Vintci

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Leonardo da Vinci
Francesco Melzi - Portrait of Leonardo.png
Tawlaft n Lyunardu da Vintci
Tudrt nns
Talallit 15 abril 1452, Vinci (Toscane)
Tamazirt Flag of Italy.svg Ṭalyan
Tamttant 2 may 1519 (immut f 67 n usggʷas)
Igr n usmuttg Tasngama, Tusnakt
Tasdawit Tasdawit n Fluranṣa
Tawuri Asngam (فيزيائي), Usnak(رياضياتي), Ajyyar (Aṛṣṣam), Asrtan, Aflsuf
Tawja nns
Innas Caterina di Meo Lippi
Babas Piero da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( 14/15 abril 1452 - 2 mayyu 1519), ittyawssan s Leonardo da Vinci, ikka-t-nn iga yan ugtusnak aṭalyani iddrn ɣ tlslalit, iruran taynit dar kigan n yigran zun d unuɣ, taklut, "sculpture", tasdga, tussna, aẓawan, tusnakt, tajnyurit, taskla, "anatomie", tusnakalt, tasnallunt, tasnmɣit, "paléontologie", d "cartographie".

Ikka-t-nn Leonardo ar ittiri ad yisin akkʷ mad illan f ugama, ad yisin manka s tswuri ku taɣawsa, ikka t nn iḥrc bahra ɣ tiɣri, "designing" d usgadda n kraygatt askkin.

Ar ttannayn kigan n mddn Leonardo mas iga yan zɣ imklawn akkʷ mqqurnin ɣ umzruy, wiyyaḍ ar t ttannayn zund umayaf nnsn akkʷ. Tnna fllas tanmzruyt n tẓuri Helen Gardner mas d ur jju izri mad t irwasn, acku ikka t inn ar iggar taynit nns s ugudi n tɣawsiwin zun d is ur ili anlli nns iwtta. Ar tizi ad nit ur ta jju nssn yat f manka s tt inn tkka "caractère" nns.

Ilul d ɣ ammas n Vinci, yat tiɣrmt imẓẓin illan tama n Flurinsa ɣ Ṭṭalyan. Ittuslɣm f ufus n "sculptor" d umekla Andrea del Verrocchio afad ad imɣur ad ig anaẓur, izzri tudrt nns s umata nns, ar gis iswuri dar kra n yiristuqraṭiyn iṭalyann bahra bɣrnin. Ɣ yisggʷasn nns ggʷuranin, iddr ɣ yat tgmmi ifulkin nna as ifka ugllid n Fṛansa.

Ar tettyawḥasabnt snat ɣ tugniwin nns f tugniwin akkʷ dar mi illa waddur ɣ umaḍal, ad tnt igan d Mona Lisa d The last supper (Imnsi amggaru), iskr ula agudi n wunuɣn, yan bahra gisn ittyawssann zun d Vitruvian Man (Argaz Awvitruv). Ɣ umata n tikkal, ikka t inn Leonardo ar bdda iswingim ɣ yisnulfutn imaynutnin, ilin bdda dis kra n walugn ɣ ittzmmam akkʷ unuɣn d tktiyin nns, amata ɣ yisnulfutn nns ur tn jju sul ismd. Rad gisn naf kra n tktiyin zun d "hélicoptère", "tank", tamsiḍent, "parachute", aṛubu, atilifun, tiẓri n tnflit d "énergie solaire".

Tudert nns[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Timẓi nns, 1452-1466[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Unuɣ akkʷ iqburen dar Leonardo f uyenna ittwassnen, Asif n Arnu, 1473. Illa ɣ usefser n Uffizi.

Ilul Leonardo ɣ 15 abril 1452, ɣ tiɣrmt tatuskanit n Vinci, ɣ yiɣzr n wasif Arnu, yura jddis Antonio da Vinci ifruritn n tlalit nns acku ur ta tahln imarawn nns ɣ akud ann, iga iwis n Ser Piero da Vinci, yan umsntam awflurintin bahra ibɣrn, d Caterina, yat tmazzalt nna f ggudin iwennitn d tẓriyin, illa mad fllas ittinin mas tt nn tkka tga yat tsmgt d ikkan bṛṛa n tmazirt nnsen, zun d Ccinwa nɣ d Anẓul-Agmuḍan, yili daɣ mad ittinin mas tt nn tkka ur tgi abla yat tmẓluḍt ult tmazirt nnsn nit. D Leonardo, Iɣʷi t nn sul dars babas ikllf sis, tahl daɣ immas turu smmus wazzann yaḍnin. Ism nns ummid igat "Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci", isnumkn "Leonardo, iwis n mass Pier u Vinci".

Izzri Leonardo smmus ɣ yisggʷasn nns imzwura d immas ɣ yat tgmmi mm wurti, fad ilmma immuti s Vinci ad izdɣ d ibbas d tmɣart nns tis snat Albiera, ilin disn ula id jeddis d ɛmmis Francesco. Ḍart mad imqqur Leonardo, ur bahra izmmim f temẓi nns abla yan sin yikttayn ẓlinin, amzwaru lliɣ t nn ikka iẓẓl yan wass bṛṛa ujguggl nns, yuyl nnig as yan ugḍiḍ ixatrn isli t s rric nns ɣ udm nns. Akttay nns azalan wis sin iga t; lliɣ t nn ikka ar issara yan udrar yaf nn yan ifri, d mqqar t nn ikka iksuḍ ad yili kra n xxu ɣ ugns, ur t tujji tdwwayt nns ad srs ikcim ad gis isnubbc.

Tasawrt n Verrocchio, 1466-1476[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ɣ 1466, lliɣ t-nn-tkka dar Leonardo 14 usggʷas, yiwi-t-nn babas dar Flurinsa, afad ad ig anlmad n unaẓur Verrocchio.

Tekka-tt-nn tga Flurinsa yan udɣar ismectagen ul n yan umeẓyan innurzen ad yaɣul d anaẓur, ddren gi-s yad kigan n inaẓuren ttyawssanin ɣ temrawant n 1200 zun d Cimabue d Giotto, ɣinna dar ibeṛṛem yan ixef nns qad nn gi-s yaf ifarsen iẓuranen ẓilnin ttyawssanin, ha takatidralit takeswatt s talqubbet nns tamaynut igan tabarawt, ha taglizt n ugʷrram John s tiggura nns n wureɣ sfiqqisnint, tili ɣ tama nns yat teglizt-yaḍen mi ssutulen wattayen nns "sculptures" d-kkanin "sculpteurs" akkʷ ttyawssannin zun d aselmad n Leonardo s yixef nns.

Anaẓur igan aleḥyan ɣakud-ann iga-t wa d yufan kra n umassaɣ i tfelwin nns, yan lli rad tent dar-s yawi s tugt-nnsent. Tawja akkʷ ibeɣren ɣ Flurinsa n uzemz-ann Medici ad tt-igan, nettni ad dar ikka ubergemmi akkʷ ifejjijen ammas n temdint-ann, d iɛezza dar-sen ad ssaɣen tifelwin, isefrisen d tɣawsiwin yaḍnin ẓilnin, kkan-t-nn awed ar bahra ttraran taynit s tsekla d tfelsuft, kigan d inaẓuren iɛerrimen ɣakud-ann; kkan ar ttnuruzen ad si-sen raren ayt Medici d yimeddukkal-nnsen taynit.

Tezri dar Verrocchio yat tsawert imeqquren ur isalan, ɣ ikka Leonardo ar ittelmad tiɣarasin n tẓuri, ɣik-ann ma f t-nn fell-as ikka iga ccil ad ilmed unuɣ, taklut, "sculpture" d umsudem. Mac ɣ wakud igan yan, ilmed daɣ kraygatt tasugert tunfiɛt illan, zun d takrura, tagemɣuzt, tagebbaṣt, tawuri n yilmawen, tamikanikt d tnesramt.

Ur d Leonardo i waḍu nns ka ɣinn ikkan ɣ tsawert-ann, amunen gi-s agudi n yimeklawen-yaḍnin, yili akkʷ gi-sen mad yaɣulen d "célèbre" imeqquren, zun d Ghirlandaio, Perugino d Botticelli. Inaẓuren-ad, ur bahra ugren Leonardo s yiseggʷasen. Ar ittales Giorgio Vasari yat tenfust ilan azal f tizi-ad ɣ tudert n Leonardo, ɣ t-nn-ikka Verrocchio ar ikellu yat tfelwit ixatren iqqnen s wudum (baptême) n umasiḥ, ifka-as i Leonardo tmehla n ad iklu yan ɣ yineglusen illan f uẓelmaḍ nns. Inna Vasari mas t-nn ikʷla Leonardo s yat tmamekt imk-ad ifulkin, isres-nn akkʷ Verrocchio ccita nns s yat tikkelt, d ur jju d nettan ad sul iklu kra ɣ tudert nns. S yan uzzray ineɣden, rad ifrek yan i mas d Leonardo ad ixedmen ula igezzumen-ann nns yaḍnin, zun d izṛan, amzaz aqehwi d ula "background nns". Ar ttinin ula f Leonardo mas d fell-as isnulfa Verrocchio ɣakud-ann asefris nns awbrunẓ n David isker gi-s zund tmudemt nns.

Baḍaḍ n umajus, (1481) ɣ usefser n Uffizi

Ɣ 1472 zun d ɣik-ann, lliɣ t-nn dar-s tekka 20 useggʷas, ilkem-d Leonardo "Guild" n St Luke (Luke Agʷrram), yat tmaddast n yinaẓuren d yiḍukturen n tesnijjit, d mqqar as-d-isersel ibba-s yat tsawert igan tinnes i yixef nns, iɣama-nn Leonardo dar Verrocchio izdeɣ dars acku tɛezza dars twwuri ɣinna.

Tawuri akkʷ iqburen dar Leonardo f uyenna ittyawssanen iga-t unuɣ n wasif Arnu ittyawskaren s uɣanib, ittuzemmem s usakud n 5 ɣuct 1473, yili ɣila ɣ usefser n Uffinzi.

Tudrt nns tazzulant, 1476-1499[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Adday ittara Vasari f Leonardo, ar issemras kra n yiwaliwen zun d "noble", amafkay, "gracieux" d ufalkay, ar aɣ ittini Vasari mas t-nn-ikka Leonardo ɣ tiɛɛurma nns, iga yan urgaz iɣezzifen ifulkin, ikka-t-nn idus kigan igeḍḍer, ar akkʷ issefraɣ tisaliwin n yisan s yifassen nns qqurnin. Iẓil bahra umesli nns ar si-s "charmer" wanna as ka isellan, isiggel kraygatt yan tiddukkla nns ɣakud-ann. Ikka-t-nn iga yan umeccimɣan dar ɛezzan imudar, ar issaɣ kra tikkal igḍaḍ afad ad ten ka isderfi.

Ikka-t-nn Leonardo iga yan unaẓur ilan yat tmefkit imqqurn, isnulfa-d ɣ 1482 yat "lyre" n uẓref (nnqert) f talɣa n yixef n wayyis, tizi ɣ t-nn-ikka yan unebbaḍ amaynu ɣ temdint n Milan agafa n Ṭṭalyan, igan s yisem Ludovico il Moro, yan uduk isennuɣjufen inebbaḍen yaḍnin. Yuzen Lorenzo n ayt Medici Leonardo s Milan zund umesqad nns afad ad ifek i Ludovico Lyre-ann nns zund yat trezzift zeɣ dars. Yura Leonardo i uduk n Milan yat tebratt, ɣ ittales kullu tiɣawsiwin-ann ḥrecnin unfiɛnin nna mi izḍar, zun d asnulfu n tmacinin n girra. Yara-as ula s uzegzel mas "issen i teklut ula nettat", ur t-nn akkʷ ikki ɣ ugayyu nns ɣakud-ann mas d taɣawsa-ad nit s rad bahra sul ittyawssan. Iɣama-nn Leonardo ɣ Milan ar iswuri dar uduk ger iseggʷasen n 1482 d 1499, ikka dars yan ugezzum ɣ twwuri nns iẓlin ɣar s "design" n "défilés" n tfugliwin d ikaṛnabalen, ttyafan dars ula ɣ walugen nns kra n wunuɣen i tmelsa n tmezgunin, idsen yimsegdalen "incroyable" d kra n yisinaryuten nna mi yallfus ad ilin assaɣ d umezgun.

Tazrawt n Leonardo da Vinci s tneqqiḍt n uẓref i Ayyis, c. 1488

Leonardo, zun d nettan zun d amata n yinaẓuren bahra ttyawssannin ɣ uzemz nns, kkan-t-nn dar-s idsen yimazzalen ɣ tsawert nns, swa inelmaden iɛerrimen swa imawasen meqqurnin, ikka-t-nn yan ɣ yinelmaden nns iga s yisem Gian Giacomo Caprotti da Oren. Ikka-t-nn iga yan urba iɣudan iṭṭafen "curls" n wureɣ ɣezzifnin fulkinin. Ikka-t-inn ar di-s ittacka ad ig tamudemt n yineglusen dar yinaẓuren. Mac iga ula yan uxendallas iceqqan, "Salai" neɣ "Salaino" (isnumken "iblis imeẓẓin") ka ad as-ittini Leonardo.

Yura Leonardo ɣ walug nns f Salai, mas t-nn-ikka iga yan uṭemmaɛ d yan bu tkerkas ur ilin anaw, d mas t-nn-ikka ar as bedda ittaker tiɣawsiwin nns ɣ tgemmi, idder di-s ɣ ammas n uzedduɣ nns i 30 yiseggʷasen zund unelmad d umazzal nns.

Ayyis Axatar[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Afares n Leonardo akkʷ ilan azal ɣakud-ann ɣ uzemz n uswuri dar Ludovico, iga-t asnulfu n yan usefris imqquren f talɣa n yan umnay issudan ayyis nns, ad si-s ssimɣuren s unebbaḍ-nnsen izwaren Francesco Sforza. Izwur-d Leonardo s wayyis, deffir mad bahra isker tezrawin-nnss f "anatomie" n wanaw-a ɣ yimudar, issuneɣ-asen id "design"; isnulfa-d yan wayyis n tallaɣt imqquren mi iga s yisem "Gran Cavallo" (Ayyis Axatar), ikka-t-nn rad as sul ittuga ubrunẓ nns afad ad yaɣul ayyis awbrunẓ akkʷ ixatren ɣ umezruy atrar. Mac ur as sul tettusmid twwuri nns s temgeṛẓa. Ɣ 1494, ifka Ludovico abrunẓ-ann akkʷ dar-sen illan ad t-nn-ssurrin s "cannons" acku fell-asen d-ikcem userdas afṛansis s uwettas n usdurriy. Ayyis n tallaɣt ixatren, ibidd ukan tizi-ann ɣ rad d-urrin ifransisen s Milan ɣ 1499 afad ad daɣ armen ad tt-sdurriyen, smersen-t tikkelt-ad i usleɣmu n tniyyact, xlun-t kullu.

Tamgudt n Isuliln[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tazrawt s tneqqiḍt n uẓref i umedruz (design ittwajjen), c. 1490

Izzri Leonardo snat tseqqimin n teklut nna mi dar illa wazal ɣ wakud ɣ t-nn-ikka ar iswuri dar Ludovico. Yat gi-sent; ad iklu yat tfelwit n uzatim (zzit) nna rad iddun s useɣres axatar n tegʷmat n usemmeḍren iɣusen (Confraternity of the immaculate conception), isker gi-s Leonardo snat tfelwin ifel-d yat d yimhiwac n Milan, yiwi di-s ṭayya s Franṣa, tɣama-nn. Ad tettyafa ɣassa ɣ usalay n Louvre. Ur mzarayent tfelwin ad s yisem, ar mmalant s sin-itsent amuɣli n Maryam Tamgudt d bijju nns Ɛisa, ɣ ammas n yan udɣar ameḍlus igan kullu isulilen,َ mani ɣ rad mmaggaren d John Amseddam. Tella yat tenfust (nna ur illin ɣ Injil, tili ɣar ɣ taysi tawmasiḥt) f manik as imlala Ɛisa bijju d John ɣ uɣaras ittawin s Misṛa. Ɣ tmuɣli-a, illa John ar ittẓalla; yall-d Ɛisa bijju afus nns ibarek-t. Tettyawssan tfelwit-ad n Leonardo s unezwi-ann nns ikerrmen nna aɣ-takka, asidd nns aɣrib ikkaten s yan usyafa ittawin tiysas, imula nns dranin d "background" nns immalan agelmam d yidurar ɣ ammas n taggut. Ur jjun akkʷ tettyawskar kra n tfelwit igan zun d nettat ɣ kullu mayd izrin.

Tamgudt n Isulilen, Louvre, yallfus is d 1505–1508.

Imnsi Amggaru[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

"Imensi Ameggaru" (1498). Milan, Italy.

Taflwit tis snat n Lonardo ɣ Milan nna mi dar illa wazal, is akkʷ tettyawssan uggar n tiyyaḍ. Nttat ad igan s yism Imnsi Amggaru, ar tmmala imnsi akkʷ igguran dar Ɛisa s tamunt n yimḥḍarn nns dat wammaẓ d mnɣiwt nns. Ista Lonardo ad iklu imir ann ɣ ittini Ɛisa "rad iyi giwn iɣḍr kra n yan", ar ittals Lonardo addad n ubhaḍ d unnuɣjf nna d iɣʷin yinḍfarn nns s simraw, ar t ittals s uɣaras n yimuggan d wudmawn n mddn ɣ ammas n tflwit. Idsn ar sawaln, idsn biddn, idsn ar ttaln ɣ yifassn nnsn s tiwdi.

Ikka t nn unggal Matto Bandllo ar iẓrra Lonardo ɣ ammas n twuri nns. Yura fllas mas d ar izzray mnnaw n wussan; ar ka ikllu akkʷ mad ila wass s bla n tirmt, ibidd daɣ ilmma kṛaḍ nɣ d kkuẓ n wussan yaḍnin bla gisn iklu wala iskr yat, kra n tikkal; ar ka ɣinn ittṣmmar mnid n tflwin nns ar gisn ittqzzaz. Inna Vasari mas as ɣʷlin idammn i umɣar n tɣzamt tamhawcant, ittr as ad isnɣms Lonardo s mas as d iqqan ad iswurri s timmri. Inna Vasari mas t nn ikka Lonardo ittcṭn akkʷ, acku ur inni d yixf nns is rad nit iẓḍar ad isgadda udm n Ɛisa mzyan, inna as i uduk mas yallfus is rad iskr ɣ wudm n umɣar n yimhiwac tamudmt nns i Judas amɣdar.

Dffir mad tsmd twuri n tflwit, nnan fllas kullu willi tt ẓranin s umata nnsn mas d tawuri nns tamayuft akkʷ aynna.

Maca ur as yad issmrs Lonardo i tflwit ann "frsco" as d yusan, iskr as "tmpra" iggi n gissu, nna ur aɣ ittusmrasn yadlli i tflwin n uɣrab. ɣik ann ma f as ittca tɣurdin nns txmmj kullu, trwi s yat tikklt ḍart yat tmiḍi yisggʷasn. Mqqar d iḍr uklu n kra ɣ idɣarn nns zɣ uɣrab, tkka t inn tflwit ann tettyawssan kigan, anct ann lli gis ittusiggzn ittusnɣln yugr kullu tiflwin tisgdanin n umaḍal.

Tudrt nns tazzulant, 1499-1513[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ɣ 1499, sḍrn Ludovico il Moro. Immuti Lyunardu zɣ Milan d umazzal nns Salai d umddakkl nns amusnak Luca Pacioli s Vinisya. Iswuri ɣinna Lyunardu zund kran umasgad d ujnyur asrdasan. Acku tga Vinisya yat tmdint ibiddn f kigan n tgzirin, yurm Lyunardu ad iswingim ɣ itsnt tɣarasin ma s fllas ittgdal azzaɣn n iɣrruba. Ɣ 1500, yurri d Lyunardu s Flurinsa s tamunt n yimazzaln d yinlmadn nns. Fkan as imhiwac n tɣzamt "Holy Annunciation" yat taddart d yat tsawrt imqqurn.

Tamgudt d urba d tgʷrramt Anni d ugʷrram John Amseddam (c. 1499–1500)—Asefser Anamur, London

Tamgudt d urba d Anni Tagʷrramt d John Amsddam[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ibda Lyunardu tawuri f yat tflwit yaḍn, ig nn yan uɣawas ɣ yixf nns issunɣ as yat tunuɣt imqqurn; immalan Mayram Tamgudt, tskkus f ufud n immas Ann Tagʷrramt tusi dis abijju nns Ɛisa, yili f ufasi nns John Amsddam (Baptist). Inna Vasari mas tsbhḍ tunuɣt ann tafalkayt akkʷ middn, ddan d ad tt annin irgazn d tmɣarin, imẓyiyn wala wid mqqurnin s tigrummawin, ad tinid is d kra n umuggar imqqurn a s d uckan. Ar tttyafa ɣila tunuɣt ad ɣ Usfsr Anamur, Lunḍun. Mqqar d bahra tqbur tzzf, tili ammas n yat tmṣriyt illasn, da ttkkan middn kraygatt ass asfsr nns afad ad ka skubbrn mnid nns. Zun d nttat zun d mnnawt g twuriwin n Lyunardu, ur as jju ismd taflwit nns.

Imnɣi n Angyari[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tad tga tunɣilt i tflwit n Lyunardu igan s yism" Imnɣi n Angyari" nna tt nn ikkan ittuxlan, iga as aɣrab addal ɣ wattayn n 1560; yallfus is tga tunɣilt ad aɣawas i tflwit

Ɣ 1502 d 1503, iswuri Lyunardu dar Tcizari Burdja, aristuqraṭ idusn iwwis n ubaba Aliksandr wis sḍis. Ikka t nn Lyunardu ar dis ittmuddu zun d kran umasgad d ujnyur asrdasan, ar ttkkan mnnaw idɣarn ugns n Ṭṭalyan. Tigiriwin n 1503, yurri d Lyunardu s Flurinsa, ilkm d "Guild" n Luk Agʷrram i tikklt yaḍn.

Tettufka as yat tmskirt bahra istawhmman zɣ dar usqqim (Signoria) n Flurinsa, ran t ad asn iklu yan zɣ sin "frscos" ann mqqurnin nna rad ilin ɣ ammas n yiɣrban n tmṣriyt akkʷ dar mi illa wazal ɣ ubrgmmi n usqqim nna, ittukllaf Michlanglo s tklut n Imnɣi n Cascina, ikllf Lyunardu s tin Imnɣi n Angyari. Issnta Lonard ɣ usnfar nns, iskr tzrawin nns f udmawn n yirgazn rfanin d yiysan nnsn mmaɣnin, issunɣ tn, ilin ukan sul unuɣn a ar ɣilad ɣ walugn nns. Mac s tmgṛẓa, rad daɣ ig uya yan "failur" zɣ dar Lyunardu, acku lliɣ nn ikʷla tugna ann ɣ uɣrab, ɣ udɣar n ad issmrs "frsco", ismrks as ikʷlan nns d uzatim (zzit), ɣikann maf as ggammin ad zwun. Lliɣ yurm ad tn issrɣ s imikk n wafa, tfsi as tflwit kullu tt. Issunɣ Ptr Paul yat tunɣilt i ugzzum nns anammas, awin as d ayt usqqim n tɣrmt ḍart yat tizi ma rad as daɣ yalsn ɣ uɣrab. Ur ikmml Michlanglo taflwit nns ula ntta acku as iɣra ubaba s Ruma.

Mona Liza[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Mona Lisa neɣ d La Gioconda (1503–1519)—Louvre, Bariz, Fṛansa

Ɣ wattayn n 1503, ibda Lyunardu ar ikllu taflwit n yat tmɣart ittyawssann s Mona Liza, tasfrist akkʷ nna mi dar illa waddur ngr kullu tiflwin yaḍnin. Mnnaw yisggʷasn ad gis izzri, tga yat tugna imẓẓin ittwaklun s uzatim (zzit) iggi n yan yifil n ukccuḍ. Ar tmmala udm, tafgga tanafllant d yifassn n yat tmɣart ilsan zund ku ass. Ɣ tsfrisin, ar yadlli tlssa tamɣart timlsa d tzuzaf nns timayufnin. Tls ɣid Mona Liza yat tqndurt iḍlan d yan waddal asggan aflla yixf nns. Ɣ umata n tikkal, ar ittajja Lyunardu ɣ tflwin nns kra n yizumal ma's yakka kra n tmula (indics) f umdan nna gisn ittilin. Aynn igan aɣrib ɣ tugna ya d uynna igan aɣbalu i yism nna s tettyawssan iga t uzmummg nns : Mona Liza Giaconda, ar tsnamk Giaconda "tanna ittṣṣan", (tga Mona azgzl n Madonna isnumkn "Lalla nu".)

Tamntilt n max aylliɣ bahra tettyawssan tflwit ad, iga t acku tktur s yidrign, ar nn ttaggʷan alln n Mona Liza s yinigi nns, mac ur inni ta yan ad d ildi aynn issaran ixf nns. Alln nns d ula imi nns, ar ttumann zund is aɣ zmummugn, tamsalt igan tamaynut ɣ tklut n tsfrisin, acku ar gis yadlli ttumann middn s umata nnsn gan idɣriyn. Icqqa ad yakz yan tinfaliyin n wudm n Mona Liza s usnɣd, acku iɣ yad ira yan ad iɣr isyafatn n wayya yakz tn, iqqan t id ad nn iluḥ asmaqql nns s usga n tɣmriwin n walln d yimawn nnsn. Ixdm tt Lyunardu s yat tɣarast ɣ tettumann imula fssusnin ɣ tsggiwin n udm, amggrḍ d yifassn nns, ar tettusmma tamamkt a "sfumato" (isnumkn "aggu" s taṭalyanit). Ḍart mad tt ẓran kra n yinaẓurn yaḍnin, nnan d yiguyya nnsn mas d ur rad zḍarn i tklut n kra n tflwit igan zun d nttat.

Tudrt nns tazzulant, 1506-1516[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ɣ 1506, yurri d Lyunardu s Milan d yinlmadn nns, iddr ɣ tgmmi nns ɣ ammas n Porta Orintal. Aɣuln idsn ɣ yinlmadn nns d imklawn : Brnardino Luini, Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio d Marco D'Oggion. Iskr D'Oggion mnnawt tunɣilin i Imnsi Amggaru, iskr Luini yat i Tamgudt n Isuliln, ikʷla Boltraffio d wiyyaḍ kigan n tugniwin n id Madonna d Ubijju, izḍar yan ad tnt sul iẓr ɣ yisfsar n tẓuri d ula tiglizin.

Tiɣbula[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tiɣri uggar[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  • Daniel Arasse (1997). Leonardo da Vinci. Konecky & Konecky. ISBN 1 56852 1987.
  • Liana Bortolon (1967). The life and times of Leonardo. Paul Hamlyn, London. ISBN 075251587X.
  • Hugh Brigstoke (2001). The Oxford Companion to Western Art. USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198662033.
  • Angela Ottino della Chiesa (1967). The complete paintings of Leonardo da Vinci. Penguin Classics of World Art series. ISBN 0-14-00-8649-8.
  • Charles D. O'Malley and J. B. de C. M. Sounders (1952). Leonardo on the human body: the anatomical, physiological, and embryological drawings of Leonardo da Vinci. With translations, emendations and a biographical introduction. Henry Schuman, New York.
  • A.E. Popham (1946). The drawings of Leonardo da Vinci. Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0 224 60462 7.
  • Jean Paul Richter (1970). The notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Dover.
  • Paolo Rossi (2001). The Birth of Modern Science. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0631227113.
  • Bruno Santi (1990). Leonardo da Vinci. Scala / Riverside.
  • Jack Wasserman (1975). Leonardo da Vinci. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-0262-1.

Ismaln yaḍnin[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

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