Jirulanu Kardanu

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Jirulanu Kardanu
Girolamo Cardano. Stipple engraving by R. Cooper. Wellcome V0001004.jpg
Tudrt
Talalit Pavie, 24 Ctember 1501
Taɣlnt duché de Milan
Tamttant Roma, 20 Ctember 1576
Tawja
Baba-s [[Fazyu Kardano]]
Tiɣri
Alma mater université de Pavie
université de Padoue
Doctoral students Ludovico Ferrari
Tutlayin Talatint
Inelmaden
Tawuri
Tawuri aflsuf, amusnak, Amsnallun, Amsnulfu, personnel médical, Amsnitri, Ajnyuṛ, ṭṭbib d Amsngam
Adɣar n twuri Padova, Milano, Pavie, Bologne d Roma
Imɛellmen université de Bologne
université de Pavie
Influenced by Archimède
Taflst
Asgd Tamzdayt takatulikt

Jirolamo (nɣ d Jironimo) Kardano (Taṭalyanit : [dʒeˈrɔlamo karˈdano]; Tafṛansist : Jérôme Cardan; Talatinit : Hieronymus Cardamus; 24 cutanbir 1501 - 21 cutanbir 1576) ikka t nn iga yan ugtusnak awṭalyan, ur as yufi ad ikcim s tsdawit n imjjayn acku ilul d acnti, mac waxxa ɣmkann imurs sul ɣ uɣaras nns zun d umjjay, yura f tussna uggar n 200 twuriwin.

Ijgugl s tsugar nns d uynna s ikka ar ittrara taynit ɣ mnnaw n igran; zun d umusnak, amjjay, amsnuddr, amusnaw n tfizikt, amskrar, amsnitri, afilusuf, amara d uqmmaṛ. Ittyawssan s umata s mas t nn ikka iga yan zɣ imusnakn akkʷ nna mi txatr tzrirt ɣ tlslalit, yan zɣ wudmawn izalanen ɣ ussrsl n "probabilité" d umssidf amzwar n "coefficients binomiaux" d "théorème binomial" s umaḍal awtaram, d zɣ dars ad d ikka uglam amzwaru n tawla "Typhoïde*. Isnulfa d mnnawt n tɣawsiwin, ad gisnt naf "Kardan grille", taqcuct n Baguenaudier d usrgl bu tuddsa. Iskr awd kra n twafutin ɣ waljibr, issumr d itsnt tɣarasin ma s frrun tagdiwin "kwartik" d "kubik".

Ikka t nn Kardano ɣ umata n tikkal ar ittqmmar s war tnbbaḍt, yan ɣ idlisn nns, Libr di ludo aleae (Adlis f wurarn n wannaz), da gis issidif tazrawt tangrawant akkʷ izwarn n "probabilité" d yan ugzzum iqqnn s uɣndf ula ntta. Yura t ɣ wattayn n 1564, macc ittufsar i tikklt izwarn ḍart n tmttant nns ɣ 1663.

Tizwiri n tudrt nns d usgmi[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tin tudrt tanimant, 1821

Ilul d ɣ Pavya Lumbardya d acnti n Fazyu Kardano, yan urgaz dar tlla yat tmfkit ɣ tusnakt, iswuri d anzzarfu d umstan, tsmun t d Lyunardu da Vintci yat tiddukkla idusn. Yura Kardano ɣ tsknudrt nns tanimant f immas Ciyara Micri, mas tswa mnnaw n isafarn n uɣray bac ad t tsḍr; "f uynna s iyi tnna imma, ldin id ɣ udis nns s tkṛiḍt , ɛlayn ad mmtɣ", dat n ad ilul s imikk, ikka t nn ccil f immas ad tmmuti zɣ Milan s Pavya afad ad trwl i ubayyuṛ "ṭṭaɛun", acku netta a s mmutn tarwa nns yaḍnin s kṛaḍ nnsn.

Ikcm d Kardano ɣ 1520 s tsdawit n Pavya mgal tirat n babas nna as iran tiɣuriwin n uzrf, ḍart yat tmẓi nna mi ixub waḍu, ikturn s tmuḍan ur smidnin, d usgmi icqqan n bu tɣnnant igan babas, yufa nn Jirolano ixf nns ɣ tayri n tflsuft d tussna. Ammas n girra tawṭalyant n 1526-1521, sbzzizn iduba n Pavya f tsdawit ad trgl tifliwin nns ɣ 1524. Ikmml Kardano tiɣri nns ilmma ɣ tsdawit n Padwa, mani ɣ sul yumẓ taduktuṛat nns ɣ tsnijjit aseggʷas n 1525. Ur t tujji tmamkt nns tamnalant igan bizarre ad bahra iskr imddukkal, d ula asiggl n twuri; yut gis tamara dffir mad kullu ismd tɣuriwin nns. Yuzn Kardano tuttriwin nns n wadaf s tɣiwanit n imjjayn ɣ Milan mnnawt n tikkal, mac ur t jju qbln s tmntilt n tsllit nns ixcnn d tlalit nns irkan zun d ucnti, mqqar ɣmkann, kkan t nn ayt tɣiwant ann n imjjayn ar bdda dis ttmciwirn ɣ kraygat tamsalt, f wudm n tɣist nns ur issinn tuccḍa.

Tizwiri n tizzlt (carrière) nns d amjjay[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ira yadlli Kardano ad ixdm tasnijjit nns ɣ yat tmdint imqqurn igan tansbaɣurt zun d Milan, mac ur as tettufka turagt i tmskrt nns, ɣmkann ma f iɣts ad izdɣ tiɣrmt n Sakkulugu, ɣ ixdm tsnijjit nns bla kra n turagt. Itahl ɣinna Lucia Banderini ɣ 1531, yuru dis kṛaḍ tazzanin dat tmttant nns ɣ 1546, ad tn igan d Jyuvanni Battista (1543), Ciyara (1537) d Aldo Urbani (1543). Yura sul Kardano ḍart yat tizi f wussan nna; mas gisn izzri tumrt s timmad nns.

Iɣʷi d Kardano s twisi n idsn iristuqraṭiyn yat tsɣent ɣ uslmd n tusnakt ammas n Milan. Dffir mad yumẓ turagt nns tasjjant, ixdm tusnakt d tsnijjit s yat tikklt, jjin f ufus nns imuḍan bahra stawhmmanin, yurri d ilmma s tmntilt ad iga yan zɣ idukturn akkʷ nna s da ttllin middn ammas n Milan, is d akkʷ yufa ɣ 1536 ad ifl tawuri nns n uslmd, d mqqar jju ur isbidd tararit nns n taynit s tusnakt, tlkm d ccnɛt nns ɣ igr asjjan kra n iskʷfal attuynin, urmn akkʷ iristuqraṭiyn ad t-ssaggugn f Milan. Yura sul Kardano ḍart yat tizi mas yuga ɣ wakud ann iskanen d kkanin igllidn n Danimark d Franṣa, d ula tagllidt n Skutlanda.

Tusnakt[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tafrist n Cardano illan ɣ tinmel n tusnakt d tesnaddadt, Taɣiwant n St Andrews.

Ittyawssan Kardano s mas iga umusnak akkʷ izwarn s usmrs angrawan n wuṭṭunn uzdirn, ifsr d s uzday ɣ udlis nns n 1545 Ars Magna, afssay n Cipiyuni dil Firru i tagda "kubik" d ufssay n unlmad nns Lodoviko Firrari i tagda "kwartik". Ilkm t id ufssay n yat tmackut iẓlin n tagda "kubik" {x^{3}+ax+b=0} zɣ dar Nikkolo Fontana Tartagliya ɣ 1539, nna as inna i umata ḍart yat tizi mas as iggulla Kardano ur tt immala i awd yan, isnkr dis s tmntilt ad yan umcubbk iɣzzifn f talɣa n tdyazt, mac izwar ufssay n Firro win Fontana. Idgga ɣ ufasr nns s uynna mi qqarn ɣilad uṭṭunn isugnann, waxxa yadlli ur igzi imnzayn nnsn nna d iglm ggʷ uzmz nns awṭalyan Rafael Bombelli i tikklt tamzwarut. Issidf d "Coefficient binomial" d "Théorème binomial" ɣ udlis nns igan s uzwl Nuser "proportions" imaynutnin "Opus novum de proportionibus."

Isggʷasn nns imggura d tmttant nns[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Sin ɣ tarwa n Kardano — Giovanni Battista d Aldo Urbano — gulan nn tgiriwin timezdarin. Giovanni Battista, amnzu d umayuf nns, ittwazrf s tubbya n yixf ɣ 1560, acku inɣa tamɣart nns s irin ḍart mad yufa tarwa nns s kṛaḍ nnsn ur akkʷ gin winns. Aldo Urbano ittublan s tqmmaṛt, igdl fellas babas tukkust ɣ 1569 acku ikka t nn da as ittakʷr iqariḍn nns.

Immuti Kardano zɣ Pavya s Bulunya, zɣ yat tsga; acku ifls s mas d ikka uɣtas n "exécution" n Jyuvanni nns tazrirt n taẓit nns d tmrslt takadimikt ammas n Pavya, d tusmin nna as usin imidawn nns f ismdutn nns ussnanin, d acku t-rubln altu s tumliwin n wunufn ignusann d inlmadn nns.

Ittyamaẓ Kardano dar "Inquisition" ɣ 1570 s itsnt tmntal tirussinin, ittubzzaz fllas ad izzri yan mnnaw n wayyurn ɣ ubniq d ad d isḍr tasɣnt ann nns n uslmd. Immuti s Ṛuma, yumẓ gis yat "annuity" ar timḍlt zɣ dar ubaba Griguri wiss-13 (dffir mad yuga ubaba Pius wiss semmus tuttra nns), ismd ilmma ɣinna taskndurt nns tanimant.

Ittyawqbal ɣ tɣiwant tagldant n imjjayn, ikmml waxxa ɣmkann f tzrawin nns tiflsufiyin s uzday d tmskirt nns n tsnijjit ar tamttant nns ɣ 1576.

Iɣbula[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  • Cardano, Girolamo, Astrological Aphorisms of Cardan. Edmonds, WA: Sure Fire Press, 1989.
  • Cardano, Girolamo, The Book of My Life. trans. by Jean Stoner. New York: New York Review of Books, 2002.
  • Cardano, Girolamo, Opera omnia, Charles Sponi, ed., 10 vols. Lyons, 1663.
  • Cardano, Girolamo, Nero: an Exemplary Life Inckstone 2012, translation in English of the Neronis Encomium.
  • Dunham, William, Journey through Genius, Chapter 6, 1990, John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-50030-5. Discusses Cardano's life and solution of the cubic equation.
  • Ekert, Artur, "Complex and unpredictable Cardano". International Journal of Theoretical Physics, Vol. 47, Issue 8, pp. 2101–2119. arXiv e-print (arXiv:0806.0485).
  • Giglioni, Guido, "'Bolognan boys are beautiful, tasteful and mostly fine musicians': Cardano on male same-sex love and music", in: Kenneth Borris & George Rousseau (curr.), The sciences of homosexuality in early modern Europe, Routledge, London 2007, pp. 201–220.
  • Grafton, Anthony, Cardano's Cosmos: The Worlds and Works of a Renaissance Astrologer. Harvard University Press, 2001.
  • Morley, Henry, The life of Girolamo Cardano, of Milan, Physician 2 vols. Chapman & Hall, London 1854.
  • Ore, Øystein, Cardano, the Gambling Scholar. Princeton, 1953.
  • Rutkin, H. Darrel, "Astrological conditioning of same-sexual relations in Girolamo Cardano's theoretical treatises and celebrity genitures", in: Kenneth Borris & George Rousseau (curr.), The sciences of homosexuality in early modern Europe, Routledge, London 2007, pp. 183–200.
  • Sirasi, Nancy G., The Clock and the Mirror: Girolamo Cardano and Renaissance Medicine, Princeton University Press, 1997.

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