Sidi Ḥmad u Musa

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Sidi Ḥmad u Musa
Zawiya Sidi Ahmed ou Moussa tombe tchapele divanteure.jpg
Asmḍl n sidi Ḥmad u Musa g iɣrm n iliɣ

Tudrt nns
Azmz n tlalit : 1460 Dat tlalit
Aḍɣar n tlalit : Tiɣrmt n Bumṛwan
Azmz n tmttant : 1863 Dat tlalit
Tamazirt: Flag of Morocco.svg Lmɣrib
Asmutteg
Igr n usmuttg: Tiggurma, Asgd, Tasrtit
Tawwuri
Amhawc


Aḥmad U MusaSidi Aḥmad U Musa (1460 - 1563) ikka tt inn iga yan umurabiṭ, agrram amuslm d argaz n ddin ɣ Taẓrwalt ɣ tmazirt n Sus ɣ Lmɣrib[1].

Iga Ḥmad U-Musa yan zɣ ixatarn n mutaṣawifin ɣ Lmɣrib ɣ uzmz nns ɣ tasut tis-XVI. Iṭṭaf tazdayt ifulkin d iṣulṭaniyn Isaɛdiyn, agrram ad ittuysan ig yan urgaz ilan bahra atig ɣ umzruy, d lqist nns ttussan ɣ kraygat mani ɣ tmazirt n Sus. Ittussan Ḥmad U-Musa ɣ warratn iɛrabn iqburn ddu yism n Aḥmad Bn Muha Al-Jazuli As-Smlal.

Yism ad n Al-Jazuli (lli igan Agizul s tclḥit) ar aɣ immal masd iga zɣ Igizuln, tmazirt n Igizuln tgatt tqriban adɣar lli ɣ llan idrarn n waṭlas mẓẓiyn n utaram kullutn. Imzdaɣ n idɣarn ad gantn: Idaw Smlal, Idaw Baɛqil d Id gg Arsmuk. Tqbilin ad s kraḍ munn kullu ddu tamunt n Idaw Ultit. Iqqand ula ad issnm mas Igizuln (ttyura Jazula ɣ warratn iɛrabn) iga ula tamazirt n yan mutaṣawif imqqurn n tasut tis-XV att igan Muḥmmad U-Sliman Agizul, ig amara n Dalil Al-Xayrat. Ig yan zɣ sa irgazn n Mrrakc (ma mu nttini s tɛrabt: Sabɛatu rijal).

Tudrt nns[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Amḍl n Sidi Aḥmad U Musa

Ilul d Aḥmad U Musa Agizul Asmlal ɣ tuẓẓumt n tasut tis-smust d mraw ɣ usggwas n 1460 ɣ Ayt Mrwan lli igan yan lmuḍɛ ɣ Ida U-Smlal ɣ ammas n izaggn n tsga tutrimt waṭlas mẓẓiyn[2] ɣ tmazirt n Sus. Baba-s iga s yism Musa U-Dris, d mas Lala Tawnnut, mayad att ijjan ayg yan zɣ wayyaw n Muḥammad Ajazuli. Immut ɣ 1553. Zɣ mad ttinin middn izaykutn ɣ Sus, iqburn n Aḥmad U Musa irwas is d uckan z Tamdult n Waqqa, yat tiɣrmt tettuybna zikk ɣ tasut tis-IX ɣ udrar n Bani anammas tama n Aqqa. Tamdult lli d ibdr Al-Bakri tkka tt inn tga yat tiɣrmt ɣ tnzruft istawhman iṭṭafn yan umzruy bahra imqqurn, ɣilad tiɣrmt ad txwa kullu tga kullu ixrban.

Ɣ timẓi nns, yaggugn Aḥmad U Musa f ayt dars, iffaɣ tmazirt nns fad ayftu ad imuddu. Iɣ d nucka ad nẓr warratn iqburn n Sus n Ḥudaygi, nnan gis mas idda s Mrrakc fad ay-ɣr uggar f Lislam izri gis zzaf n luqt qbl ad imuddu s ugmuḍ ɣ nn kigan isggwasn ɣd ntta, d mas yurrid s tmazirt n Sus ɣ 1521.

Qbl ad ig agrram, Ikka tt in iga Aḥmad U Musa yan unmaddu bahra imqqurn zund tuggt n iɛrrimn n waṭlas mẓẓiyn n uzmz nns. Ɣ tawrglat tamiwant n Sus, ar nttals mas iḍal Ḥmad U-Musa imzdaɣ n tmazirt nns ad muddun ad ilin ɣ kraygat udɣar ɣ umaḍal, inna asn: « ffuɣat tamazirt, kcmat timizar yaḍnin, ftuyat, akʷ-nn issgut rbbi zund amud, yan waqqa ar-d iffal mnnaw ». Tawrglat ad n umuddu tla sul ar ɣilad ɣ tmizar n Sus, d timntal gant mnnawt: tadmsant (asiggl f twuri), tiɣri, d lbɛḍ n twal ɣar i tayri n umuddu.

Ɣ usggwas n 1521 yurri d s yan udwar imẓẓiyn ɣ Sus qbl ad istaqr ɣ Taẓrwalt, yan uzaɣar ɣ waṭlas mẓẓiyn, ɣ ugmuḍ n tamdint n Tiznit, tlla yat tmdyazt isawaln f ustay nns n Taẓrwalt ar ttini : « Ljnt, iɣ tlla ɣ iggi n wakal, Taẓrwalt ad igan amnid nns, iɣ tlla ɣ ddu wakal,Taẓerwalt ad igan amnid nns ». Iskr gis ssulala d zzawiya islamya ɣayn lli d yiwin kigan d middn ad dars tddan[3]. Ikka tt inn Aḥmad ɣ akud ann iṭṭaf tazdayt ifulkin d Isaɛdiyn.

Lliɣ d immt ɣ 1563, bnan as yan ḍariḥ ɣ ammas n zzawiya n udwar n Sidi Aḥmad U Musa lli fllas gan yism[4].

Tawrglat tamiwant[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tawrglat tamiwant taclḥiyt, slawan akk dar rrways d trubba nna ɣ tn ikka iga Aḥmad U Musa agrram fln kran tmitar n tayri n umuddu d mamnk as isnfl mayad tudrt n isusiyn. Tlla akk yat tmdyazt ttussan ɣ Sus isawaln f Aḥmad U Musa qbl ad ig agrram:

  • A bismillah urraḥman ad km d awiɣ,
  • A taqqsiḍt n yan urgaz mas ikka ddunit,
  • Sidi Ḥmad U Musa ur ikki zzawit,
  • Ula timzgid, rrbaɛt ka d itmun,
  • Ur igi abla ahyyaḍ, rrbaɛt ka-d itmun,
  • Inna ɣ tlla tmɣra yasi allun,
  • Inna ɣ tlla tarragt yasi aburi,
  • Inna ɣ insa, inna ɣ ikla, inna ɣ iruḥ.

Asrraru n tmdyazt ad tettussan ddu yism n Taqqsiḍt n Sidi Ḥmad U-Musa. Ar tsawal f lqist n urgaz ad d mamnk as iga agrram.

  • Ɣass-lli iɣ ira rbbi ad tn issrbḥ
  • Ssmdin as lullit mqqurn d wakkaz nnsn
  • Ha nit fllas willi d imun :
  • « A tarwa lḥurma nnun, alli nn aryal ar tamggrḍt ann»
  • Sawwln akk s lkibr, ur iri yan
  • Ad yasi aryal ula ad tn slin ibrdan nnsn.
  • Ḥmad U Musa, inna “yyih”
  • Talli tyaqqan s rbbi nns aɣ ccrjunt,
  • Inna bismillah, igr s tllunt zzɣ ufus,
  • Ils acddad i yxf aylliɣ d usin
  • Itrmas amṭṭa n iquzarn tudmt nns,
  • Ha aryal lli iɣli ar tamggrḍt ann,
  • Tnna y-as “a ywi, ha nn rrbḥ iḍmn ak”
  • Igr ṭitt nns s uflla, isfaw akk ignwan

Ɣ tmdyazin n inaẓurn rrways, ar nttafa mas gan i ugrram Aḥmad U Musa kigan n ismawn ar aɣ mmaln mas tt inn ikka yan urgaz iṭṭafn taẓḍuṛt, gan as Amɣar, Izm ... Tuggt n tmdyazin ad ar taddan s tiɣri i ugrram ar as tḍalabn tiwisi.

  1. A Sidi Ḥmad U Musa, amɣar n Igizuln. Ad ak nɣr ad yyi tawst …
  2. Ɣriɣ ak a Sidi Ḥmad U Musa, izm n Tẓrwalt ...

Tiɣri i ugrram ad Sidi Aḥmad U Musa tlla ɣ kigan n tmdyazin d wallasn n Sus. Zund s umdya TtlɣnjaBlɣja, nna d ttirirn tmɣarin fad ayḍr unẓar.

  • Bismillah urraḥmani
  • Ayt ugadir sslam ɛlikum
  • Sidi Hmad U Musa gid aḍar zwir aɣ

Ula inḍḍamn ar sis tnḍḍamn ad asn ifk lbaraka nns, s umdya darnɣ warra n Abdlqadr Bn Muḥammad Aṣṣwiri ɣ tasut tis 14 hijrya (att igan gr 1882 d 1987):

Usuɣl n tirra s tclḥit talatint Arra anṣli s tclḥit s ugmmay aɛrab
A sidi Ḥmad U-Musa iɣ nn ukan usiɣ.
(Aḍar?) a-kk-id nẓur tmmaɣm fllaɣ.
Mkad ittmaɣ lbaz iɣ yuru f usulil.
Ar ittaylal lbaz ifl asulil ixuf.
A lḥurma nnun a yamalu n ayt Ṛbbi adlataɣ .
Mkad d iddl umalu tafukt iɣ ihwa wass.
A lbaz lḥurr a bu walln ḍlanin gwmrat.
أسِدِ احمد اُمُسَ إغْࢽْ أُكَࢽْ أُسِغْ
أَضَرْ ٱكّْدْ نزُر تْمَّغَمْ ڢْلَّغْ
مْكَدْ إِتّْمَغْ لْبَزْ إِغْيُرُ غُسُلِلْ
أَرِتَّيْلَلْ لْبَزْ إِڢْلْ أَسُلِلْ إِخُڢْ
اَلْحُرْمَ نُّࢽْ أَيَمَلُ نَيْتْ رْبْےِ أَدْلَتَغْ
مْكَدّْ دِدّلْ أُمَلُ تَڢُكْتْ إِغِهْوَوَسْ
اَلْبَزْ لْحُرّْ أَبُوَلْࢽْ أَضْلَنِࢽْ ڮْمْرَتْ

Imdyatn ad ar aɣ mmaln masd middn n Sus ar bahra ttuqqarn argaz ad, d mas ila atig imqqurn.

Atig d unmuggar[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tudrt n ugrram Aḥmad U Musa tzdi bahra d twrglat tamiwant taclḥiyt, tlla ula ɣ kigan n warratn uttyuran ɣ Sus, ar aɣ mmalan mas ur jju d nttan ad iswingmn ad dars yili aẓḍaṛ akudan. Mqqar iḍiṣ nns iggutn ɣ ammas n middn n tmazirt. Yagʷi bdda ad iskr anmala agʷrraman d ad iṭṭf inḍfaṛ. Kudnna tt isqsa kra n yan max ur iri ad iskr zzawit, ar as ittrar Aḥmad U Musa s: « Ɣ ddunit ad ur sar yufa yan ad ikk ttmi i ccahawat ». Ilɛb ugrram Aḥmad U Musa yan ḍḍawr bahra istawhman ɣ ujuy n ufra ngr tqbilin ɣ tizi n umnzaɣ. Dars taẓḍaṛt bac ad fllasn isbzziz ad tt ḥtarmn d ad slidn i wawal nns skrn mad asn ittini. Ikka tt inn iga axatar d iga bdda amssuruf d middn. Ɣ mayad nit, ar ittini ugrran: « Ur nsmiɣ i yan d ur ikkin agʷḍi, macc ad ur inn gis iskkis » . S tɣarast yaḍni, argaz iɛdn iga tt walli yad imḍa i kran ibkkaḍn.

Ɣassad, amḍl n Sidi Ḥmad U-Musa ɣ taẓrwalt iṭṭaf sul atig nns, d iga yan udɣar nna s tddan middn fad ad awin lbaraka, iga yan ḍariḥ bahra istawhman ɣ iffus n Lmɣrib, kraygat usggwas ɣ tgira n wayyur n ɣuct, ar gis ittili yan unmuggar iga s yism Almuggar n TẓrwaltAlmuggar n Sidi Ḥmad U Musa. Ar sis tackan middn zɣ tsgiwin n Lmɣrib kullutn, ar akk gis ttilin lbɛḍ n twal ibrraniyn. d mayan ar isnuccug tadamsa n lminṭaqa. Ar gis skarn tiɣrsi d uskan i umḍl bac ad awin lbaraka. Ar nttini ula i unmuggar ad Lḥijj Lmskin. Ɣ yat tmdyazt ur ittuyssan, ar nttafa iwaliwn ar sfalkayn Idaw Ultit acku ṭṭafn adɣar ad iɣudan:

  • Tjja awn a Idaw Ultit!
  • Darun yan lḥijj ifulkin irxa srs uɣaras
  • Ad t igan d izm Sidi Ḥmad U Musa.

Lliɣ d immt ugrram Sidi Aḥmad U Musa, yan z wayyaw nns, iga s yism Bu Ḥssun, iskr yat zzawiya imqqurn ɣ Iliɣ, yan udɣar ur bahra yaggugn f Tẓrwalt. Tuggt n isggwasn as tn ikka iffus n Lmɣrib ddu ifassn n zzawit ad. Aylliɣ iɣama ittuycam ɣ umzruy n Lmɣrib. Ar asggwas n 1882, ɛad ad itmkn ugllid Ḥasan wis-sin ad yamẓ zzawit ad.

Iɣbula[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  • Sidi Ahmed Ou-Moussa yura tt Abdallah Elmountassir - PDF
  • Document à propos de la vie de Brahim U-Muḥmmad Aknku (extrême ouest de l'Anti-Atlas, XIXe siècle), [Archives privées Abdallah El Mountassir]

Tinidlisn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  • JUSTINARD L., Un petit Royaume Berbère : le Tazeroualt, un saint berbère Sidi Ahmed Ou Moussa, Paris, Librairie orientale et américaine, 1954.
  • AS-ASUSSI M., Iligh qadiman wa ḥaditan [Iligh hier et aujourd’hui], Rabat, 1966.
  • STUMME H., Dichtkunst und Gedichte der Schkeuh, Leipzig, 1895.
  • STUMME H., Handbuch des Schilhischen von Tazerwalt, Leipzig, 1899.
  • PASCON P., La maison d’Iligh et l’histoire sociale du Tazerwalt, Rabat, SMER, 1984.
  • ROSENBERGER B., « Tamdoult, cité minière et caravanière présaharienne, IXe -XIVe siècle », Hespéris - Tamuda, XI, p. 103-139, 1970
  • JUSTINARD L., « Notes sur l'histoire du Souss au XVIe siècle », Archives Marocaines, p.351- 364, 1933.
  • BRAHIM U-ƐLI U-ƐBDULLAH, Diwan qabail Souss fi Ɛahdi assulṭan Aḥmad Al-Manṣur Addahbi [liste des tribus du Souss au temps de Ahmad Al-Mansour Dehbi (XVIe sciècle)] (Edition annotée O. Afa), El-Jadida, Imprimeries Annajah, 1989.
  • DOUTTÉ E., « Les marabouts », Revue de l’histoire des religions, Paris, 1900.
  • CENIVAL P. De, MONOD Th., [traduction] Description de la côte d'Afrique : de Ceuta au Sénégal par Valentin Fernandes (1506-1507), Paris, Librairie Larose, 1938.
  • EL-BEKRI A., Description de l'Afrique septentrionale, trad. de Slane, Paris, A. Maisonneuve, 1965.
  • EL MOUNTASSIR A., Amarg, Chants et poésie amazighs (Sud-ouest du Maroc), Paris, l’Harmattan, 2004.
  • JACQUES-MEUNIÉ D., Le Maroc saharien des origines à 1670, Paris, Klincksieck, 2 vol, 1982.

Isaɣuln[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  1. https://books.google.se/books?id=QSFoQwAACAAJ&dq=ARCHIVES+MAROCAINES+volume+xxix&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjS4MGHq73oAhXNs4sKHUKaCzIQ6AEIKDAA%7Ctitle=Archives
  2. http://www.idpc.ma/view/pc_immateriel/igpcm:E50C53
  3. https://www.worldcat.org/title/early-state-in-african-perspective-culture-power-and-division-of-labor/oclc/16354172
  4. https://aujourdhui.ma/archives/sidi-ahmed-ou-moussa-un-defenseur-de-la-paix-89691