Tutlayt Taclḥit

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TaclḥiytTaclḥitTasusit (s tirra n tifinaɣ: ⵜⴰⵛⵍⵃⵉⵜ, s tirra n taɛrabt: تشلحيت) tga yat tutlayt tamaziɣt illan ɣ lmɣrib, middn li sis isawaln gan Iclḥiyn. nttat ad igan tutlayt tamaziɣt tamzwarut ɣ wuṭṭun n imssiwln d turrut n udɣar arakal nna tumẓ, llan gr 8 ar 10 id mlyun sis isawaln. [2]

Tettuysawal Tclḥit ɣ Sus, Iḥaḥan, Lḥuz n Mrrakc d kra n tsggʷin yaḍnin asn d iwalan. Tumẓ tutlayt taclḥit zɣ Taṣṣurt ɣ ugafa ar Agʷlmim ɣ unẓul ar Warzazat ɣ ugmuḍ. Mac ar tt-inn-nttafa tlla ula ɣ timdinin mqqurnin n Lmɣrib zun d Tigmmi Tumlilt (kaẓa), d Ṛṛbaḍ d Sla.

Tkka tt inn tclḥiyt ar tettyura s uskkil aɛrab, ilin kigan warratn iclḥiyn s uskkil aɛrab. Ɣ isggʷasn ad ggʷranin issffɣ-d usinag agldan n tussna tamaziɣt (IRCAM) anaw amaynu n tifinaɣ ar as tinin Neo-Tifinaɣ ntta ɣila a s tt ttaran willi as ssnin. Macc askkil alatin ad bahra ittyusmrasn, slawan akkʷ g wantirnit.

Taclḥiyt kcmn tt tguriwin tiɛṛabin macc tẓḍar ad tg tutlayt tamaziɣt tagafayt g akkʷ drusnt tguriwin turḍilin zɣ tɛṛabt.

Ism[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tikklt tamzwaurt (nna nssn) ɣ tettyubdar tguri-a ɣ kra n udlis tga tt ɣ udlis n Luis del Mármol Carvajal ɣ udlis nns yura f tfriqt, yara gis aya: « [...] dans Maroc et dans toutes les provinces de cet Empire, aussi bien que parmi les Numides et les Getules qui font vers l’occident, on parle la langue africaine pure, qu’on nomme Chilha et Tamazegt, noms fort anciens. »[3]. s taclḥit: « [...] Ɣ Lmɣrib ula ɣ tisgiwin akkʷ n Umnkud ad, ula gr Inumidiyn d Igituln lli d ikkan tsga n utaram, ar sawaln yat tutlayt tafriqt tazddagt, nna mi aqqran Cclḥa d Tamazigt, ismawn-ad iga iqburn bahra. ». Maṛmul da ittini is gan ismawn-ad s sin iqburn macc ur dars ma s rad inbḍ f uwtay n yism. Talɣa n yism Ccelḥa tbayn is tga taɛṛabt, aya a f ur nẓḍar ad nawi abdar ad am wanẓa is yad illa ism ad ɣ tutlayt n ayt unẓul amɣribi.

Aẓɣuṛ n yism "Aclḥiy" nɣ "Taclḥiyt" ur fllas illi umsacka, ilint mnnawt tannayin ɣ yimrsi ad. Amzwaru ad irar ixf i tsnaẓɣuṛt n tguri iga-t ufṛansis William de Slane ɣ usggʷas 1856. Zɣ aylli ittyussann ɣ akud ann inna is d yucka ism ad zɣ tguri "Acluḥ" (Aamgut: Iclaḥ) lli isnamkn axyam ittyuskarn zɣ wazbaln n ulɣʷm (s tfṛansist: ...mot dérivé du nom berbère achlouh, au pluriel ichlah, qui signifie tente de poil de chameau."

Ɣ 1905, iffɣ-d Auguste Mouliéras s yat tannayt infln s imikk f tin umzwaru: "(Acluḥ) iga yat tgrtilt ittusgaddan s waẓẓmay, tuga n talamt (Esparto) nɣ d tiznirt, taqburt, icrrgn..." (s fṛansist: “natte en jonc, en alfa ou en palmier nain, vieille et déchirée”)[4].

G tannayt n Van Den Boogert, gant tsnaẓɣuṛin-ad timrditin[5]. Ɣ mad iẓlin s tmzwarut, ibayn-d is nit tlla tguri "Acluḥ" s unamk n "agiṭun" mac ar tettyusmras ɣar ɣ tsgiwin n tqbaylit (Dzayr). Nnig n aya, Anamk amzwaru n tguri "Acluḥ" (mgt: iclaḥ) d aẓeṭṭa n taḍut iḥṛcen (s tfṛansist: "étoffe grossière en laine"), d ɣar anamk wis sin ka ad isnamkn "Axyam"[6].

Amara aliman Johann Wetzstein issfra is iga uẓɣuṛ n tguri "Cluḥ" aɛṛab: "[...] Le nom schulûḥ signifie : “gueux, canailles de voleurs et de meurtriers”. [...] Ce mot désigne, dans la langue la plus ancienne, une longue branche d’arbre, et aujourd’hui encore, au Liban, une forte branche, tant sur l’arbre que coupée, se nomme schilḥ , pluriel schulûḥ . On transpose l’image sur des hommes rudes, grossiers, et à Damas on dit : “Levez-vous, vous êtes couchés là comme schulûḥ el-arab, des gourdins de bédouins.” Plus largement schilḥ signifie le voleur, ainsi qu’on le rencontre souvent dans les 1001 Nuits "[7]. Kra n isggʷasn ḍart, rad yals Hans Stumme i tiẓiṛt ad[8]. Mac, illa mad yannin is ur igi amẓlan ad nsiggil irm iẓlin s tɛṛabt tantalayt tamɣribit ɣ tɛṛabin tintlayin n ugmuḍ anmmas. Anamk n tguriwin zɣ uẓuṛ [CLḤ] naḥya-t kigan gr tutlayin tiɛṛabin.

Wiss kraḍ ad ifk tannayt nns d amara angliz Robert Cunninghame Graham ɣ 1898[9]. Inna fllas maya: "Shillah is the Arabic name for the Southern Berbers, i.e. of the Atlas and the Sahara; Shluoch, in Arabic, means “cast out,” and Shillah, the “cast out folk.” The Shillah call themselves Amazeight, i.e. the noble people. This difference of opinion as to nomenclature has been observed in other nations. […] The Arabs use neither the word “Tamazirght” nor the word “Berber,” but call the Berber tribes “Shillah,” that is, the “outcasts”; the verb is “Shallaha” and the term used for the speech Shluoch".[9]

Kra n imrzutn d imaratn nnan is tga taguri taɛrabt d is tga tsnamk "imxxarn", maccan ɣ tsga yaḍn wiyyaḍ ar ttinin is tga tamaziɣt, zun d Muḥammad Aqdim, lli innan ɣ yan umgrad nns, mas d ism n "Cluḥ", ɣ tillawt, iga ism aẓɣuṛan nna fkan imzdaɣ n Lmɣrib, imṣmudn ɣ waṭlas mqqurn ɣ tisgwin n Mrrakc, tamazirt n Sus d waṭlas mẓẓiyn i yixfawn nnsn. Ɣ Tclḥit, amyag "Iclḥ" ila anamk n izdɣ bdda, zun iɣ tnnit "staqqṛ"[10]. Ɣaya ad aɣ yakkan mas d ism n Cluḥ" iga tt middn lli d istaqṛn. Inna ula ɣ tirra nns is ur igi amẓlan ad nsiggl anamk n tguri ad ɣ imawaln n tutlayin yaḍnin[9].

G tannayt n Ṛacid Agrur, ixṣṣa ad zwar nqrru is d taguri taɛṛabt ad d nttnɛimil, ur d tamaziɣt, maccan ad tt nsiggil ɣ tɛṛabt taklasikt izgl. Ixṣṣa ad tt nsiggl ɣ tɛṛabt tantalant tamɣribit lli igan yat tutlayt iddrn, ittnfaln d tizi s unmgal n tɛṛabt taklasikt. Ɣ tɛṛabt tamɣribit ur llin kra n irimn yaḍn s uẓur "CLḤ" amr wid izdin d imaziɣn, aya ar immal is d taguri-a ijṛa as unfal imsisli zɣ /r/ s /l/ (rhotacisme). Amyag "Cerreḥ" isnamk inciser, disséquer, iwa ɣ walln n imslɛṛabn, acku ar gi-s ttfhamn ɣar kra n imikk n tguriwin turḍilin, "Celḥa" tga yat tutlayt taɛṛabt ibbin, ittugzzarn, ifrɣn aylliɣ ggamin ad sul gi-s fhmn kra[11].

Tuddma "a-" ɣ Aclḥiy tga azwir nna nẓḍar ad naf ɣ tugt n tguriwin ticlḥiyin, ar nttafa azwir ad ɣ tutlayin timaziɣin s tɣarast ad nit, d s tutlayin tifrusyawiyin s tɣarasin yaḍn yaẓn i umaɣnu nɣ talɣa ad. Tagara n -iy (itturḍal-d zɣ uḍfir aɛṛab -iyy) ad ismuttgn ismawn d ifrisn. Llan ula kra n timzarayin yaḍnin ddu talɣa n Aclḥay d Taclḥayt, s tgara n -ay ɣ udɣar n -iy ddu iḍiṣ n targalt lli t id izwarn [12]. Amagut n Aclḥiy iga t Iclḥiyn ; ama ism nns unti iga t Taclḥiyt, amagut Ticlḥiyin. Amma s ddarija nɣ taɛrabt tamɣribit, amsiwl amay iga Ccəlḥ, amagut Ccluḥ, d tutlayt Ccəlḥa,[13] tawafuɣt tawtmant n Taclḥit.

Ɣ warratn iqqburn n tutlayt Taclḥit, ar nttafa mas tkka tt inn tutlayt teṭṭaf yism n Tamaziɣt nɣ d Tamazixt. S umdya, amara imqqurn Awzal (tuddma n tasut tis-18) isawl f nnaḍm n Tmazixt ann ifulkin.[14]

Acku tmazirt n Sus a ɣ bahra ggutn imsiwln n tutlayt ad, illa mad issmrasn ism Tasusit (tutlayt n Sus) fad ad isawl f tutlayt Taclḥiyt. Amsiwl amay iga Asusiy, amagut Isusiyn, d yism unti Tasusiyt, amagut nns Tisusiyin.

Amḍan n imsiwln[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tigrawin n tmazirt n Lmɣrib nna ɣ ttuysawaln Taclḥit dar uggar n uzgn n middn.     +90% n imzdaɣ     +50% n imzdaɣ

Ar ɣassad ur illi kra n uṣiḍn igaddan ittuyskarn f imsiwln n tutlayin timaziɣin ɣ tmazirt n Lmɣrib. Ɣ usit n Ethnologue, ɣ taẓrigt tis 17-20 (2014-2017) ibdr usit ad mas umḍan n imsiwln nna d ifka uṣiḍn n Lmɣrib n usggas 2014, ar ittini mas isklm umḍan n imsiwln n tutlayt Taclḥit kra n 4 id mlyun, adt igan 13% n imzdaɣ n tmazirt. Ama ɣ taẓrigt tis 21 nns (2018), inna Ethnologue mas llan 7 id mlyun n middn ɣ usggas n 2016 (war uɣbalu), adt igan 20% n imzdaɣ. Iɣ nenna masd tin 2016 ad iṣḥan, uṣiḍn n Lmɣrib n usggas 2014 islki bahra umḍan n imsiwln, acku icqqa nit ad tamnt masd tɣlid tigmiḍi n ismiwln n tutlayt ad s 7 tnqqiḍin gr 2014 d 2016. Ar ittini uṣiḍn lli ittuyskar ɣ 2016 masd umḍan n imsiwln n taclḥit ɣ Lmɣrib iga 5 id mlyun, adt igan 14% n imzdaɣ[15], Macc tugt n middn ibayn asn umḍan ad ur izdi d lwaqiɛ d masd umḍan imqqur bahra f wad llid nnan[16].

Kra n iɣbula yaḍn ar daɣ ttinin yan umḍan bahra imqqurn f walli d yad nbdr, Stroomer (2001a) iqddr masd llan «gr 6 d 8 id mlyun» n imsiwln, s ɣikkad (2008) islkm umḍan ad s «kra n 8 ar 9 id mlyun».[17] Stroomer ur ifka awd yan uɣbalu nna f isrs asutg nns.

Mqqar umḍan n imsiwln n tutlayt taclḥit, slawann akkʷ irgazn, ar sawaln Taclḥit d Ddarija ula nttat, ur illi awd kra immaln masd taclḥit ka tutlayt iddrn tettuysmigl ɣ imal. S ssbab n tamrniwt tudrift n umḍan n imzdaɣ n Lmɣrib ɣ isggʷasn ad ggʷranin (zɣ 12 id mlyun ɣ 1961 ar uggar n 33 id mlyun ɣ 2014), nẓḍar ad nini masd Taclḥit ɣilad tettuysawal uggar n kraygat uzmz izrin ɣ umzruy nns.

Tantalayin[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tantalayin n tutlayt taclḥit ur jju d nttni ad tn ikkan igan imrsi n kra n usnubbc ɣ mad izrin, macc tugt n iminagn nnan masd imsiwln n tantalayin kullutn n tutlayt taclḥit ẓḍarn ad rmsn ingr-atsn. Walli akkʷ izwarn iga Stumme, lli d iẓṛan masd imsiwl ufan ad ttuyfahamn. Inna gis : "acku tantalayin imdann n tutlayt nnsn ur bahra tt naḥya."[18] Mayad nit ad isddid ssi Ḥmad Bukus, yan usnils amɣribi d amsiwl s tutlayt Taclḥit, lliɣ d inna: "Teṭṭaf Taclḥit yat tamunt tamdrut lli d ittajjan iclḥiyn ad sawaln d ingratsn bla awd kra n tmukrist,zɣ tmazirt n Iḥaḥan ɣ ugafa ataram ar Ayt Baɛmran ɣ ammas n iffus ataram, zɣ Wactukn ɣ utaram ar Iznagn ɣ ugmuḍ, d zɣ Aqqa ɣ tiniri ar Tassawt ɣ uzaɣar n Mrrakc."[19]

Ur llin iwtta ibaynn mzyan gr tantalayin n tutlayt taclḥit d tantalayin n tamaziɣt n Waṭlas anammas. Azrig lli d isfrraqn gr tutlayin ad s sin illa ɣ kra mani gr uzgig llid ittawin zɣ Mrrakc ar Zagura, macc ar tinnin masd tqbilin n Iɣujdamn, Igliwa d Ayt Wawzgit walan i Taclḥit, d tiqbilin tidjarn nnsn Inultan, Infdwak d Imɣran walan i tamaziɣt n Waṭlas anammas.

Angraw n tirra[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Zund tutlayin yadni n imaziɣn, Taclḥit tyura smnaw igmayn, mac gan igmayn imaziɣiyn ilatiniyn willi bahra styura. Ama igmmayn iramaniyn, li sa tyura taɛrabt d ntat. Trrayad art nt nttafa bahra ɣ tmzgadiwin tiqqbura dar willi ɣranin ɣ skayl timuslimin. Ɣilad lan midn li ar taran s igmmayn n tifinaɣ.

Agmmay n Tifinaɣ[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Crystal Clear app kdict.png Imgradn lli yas iḍfarn : Agmmay n Tifinaɣ
Yat lblaka taman tamdint n Tiznit tettyura s Taɛrabt, Tafransist d tutlayt Taclḥit s iskkiln n Tifinaɣ.

Uran imzwura tamaziɣt s iskkiln n tfinaɣ d iskkiln n tarabt d iskkiln n tlatinit maca ɣ usggʷas n 2003 iskcm usinag agldan n tussna tamaziɣt tifinaɣ ɣ uslmad n tmaziɣt; tdwl tifinaɣ niɣ tifinaɣ tunṣibt ɣ umrruk.

Agmmay Talatinit[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Agmay n Talatint gis sin wanawn:

Agmmay alatin amaziɣ[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Crystal Clear app kdict.png Imgradn lli yas iḍfarn : Agemmay alatin n tmaziɣt

Agmmay amaziɣ alatin nɣd Agmmay alatin n tmaziɣt nɣd akk Tamɛmmrit iga yan ugmmay alatini ittiwskar fad ad sis nttara tutlayin timaziɣin n ugafa zund taclḥit, tarifit, taqbaylit d tacawit d wiyyaḍ zɣ isggwasn 1840 Agemmay Amaziɣ Alatin iṭṭaf 23 iskkiln Ilatiniyen d 10 isekkilen yaḍn. Yiwid agmmay ad ism n Tamɛmmrit, tajmilt i Mulud Mɛemmri, nttan atn iɛdln.

Tirra yad tggut bahra dar middn lli iɣran tamaziɣt ɣ ammas n tsdawit nɣ lli snubbucn ɣ tussna n ilsan n tutlayin timaziɣin, ar tt ntafa ɣ kigan n idlisn n Taclḥit n uzmz ad, d nzḍar att naf ula ɣ tirubba n faysbuk d sitat n iclḥiyn lli dar tɛzza tutlayt nnsn irin t ad timɣur.

Agmmay alatin afransis[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tirra ad a bahra nttafa ɣ wantirnit acku nttat ayzḍar kraygat yan ast ifhm, tusi lqawaɛid n tirra n laṣwat zɣ tafransist (zund c = ch ,ɣ = gh ,x = kh) mac ur teṭṭaf lqawaɛid ibiddn, kuyan d mamnk ast ittara, ɣayn af tga ɣir i umsawal d imddukkal d tirra ɣ ammas n lyutub d sitat yaḍn..

Agmmay Taɛrabt[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Uran imḥḍarn n timzgadiwin n iffus n tmazirt n umrruk s tirra n taɛrabt ulla s igmmayn n tlatint, illin idllisn d arratn s iskkiln ad .

Taskla[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Crystal Clear app kdict.png Imgradn lli yas iḍfarn : Taskla Taclḥit
Adlis n Muḥmmad Awzal s Tclḥit s uskkil aɛrab

Yuwi d uslmad Ɛumaṛ Affa lli igan aslmad ɣ tmɣrudt n Rrbaṭ dffir isnubbucn lli iga f usntl amzruy n warra amaziɣ s uskkil « aεṛab » mas iga Umṛṛuk s umata ansa i uskkir n warratn s tutlayin tamaziɣin s tmzarayin nns akkʷ swa ɣ Sus nɣ d Laṭlas nɣ d Rrif irnu isslkn ɣ yat tinawt iga tt usinag agldan n tussna tamaziɣt ɣ 2003 mas d Sus ad igan tansbaɣurt uggar s wanaw ad n warratn. Aya yuwi t id, mk lli inna, wansa arakal lli illan dar tsga ad d lli tt yujjan ad taggug f iḍiṣn inadafn aylli tt yujjan ad tḍuf kigan n uzug anutlay d unamun d udmsan d usrtan.

Awttas zɣ warratn lli skrn iclḥiyn n zik ur igi tutlayt taclḥit s ixf nns maka d ad ssawḍn tussna tamsɣant i ugdud amaziɣ lli ikkan ur da ittakʷz taεṛabt, aya isfaw t mas amata ɣ warratn ad aɣn d iskkinn n usgd swa ɣ igr n usumd nɣ ɣ igr n uflas nɣ ɣ igr n tikli n wasr nɣ isfra lli t ittalɣn, issuman t awd acku ur snzgumn imaratn ad s wanaw n tirra d ur srisn kra n ilugnn i usnmarra amaziɣ.

Kra n imdyatn zɣ warratn aɣ d yuwḍn :

  • Asuɣl n udlis Al anwar assunnyya fi lkalimat assunnyya « Tifawin tisunniyin ɣ tguriwin tisunniyin » i Muḥammad ug Aḥmad u Juzayy Aɣṛnaṭi s tmaziɣt n Sus.
  • Arra  « Tafukt n ddin » i Ɛli u Hmad ug Iliɣ , adlis ad iga yat tmdyazt ɣ llant mraw n yifḍn n tiwnt .

Yuwi d uslmad Affa ɣ tinawt nns uttay n 25 n warra ttyaranin s tutlayt taclḥit, irnu uslmad ad mas d arrantn lli ittyamaẓn ɣ Uṛubba ttwaḥḍan ɣ Iks Un ɣ Rufans ɣ Fṛanṣa.

Zɣ warratn imaziɣn igan izaykutn lli ittyaskarn s tmaziɣt « Kitab al-asmae » (Adlis n wassaɣn) lli igan yan usgzawal (msmun awal) amaziɣ aεṛab ittuɣuln s tasut tiss 12 n tlalit, ittyaskar usgzawal ad ɣ 1146 dat n tlalit, yara t u Tunart lli iluln ɣ 1085 dat tlalit immt ɣ 1172 (ur igi u Tumrt Amuwḥḥidi), tili ɣ warra ad 2500 n tguri tamaziɣt lli ɣ amunt 250 n wassaɣn n imɣayn, ig usgzawal ad yan zɣ isgzawaln akkʷ iqbrn ɣ umaḍal. Kkuẓ n warratn ad ufan n udlis ad, kraygat yan gisn ur irwas wayyaḍ. Munn kullu ɣ yan warra ig win tasut tis-XVII ar tis-XX. Gan s kkuẓ-itsn win umara Ibn Tunart. Tis-kkuẓt, talli akk gisn istawhman, gis uggar n 2.500 n ukccumn iɛrabn d usuɣl nnsn s taclḥit. Ikccumn ad smunntn ɛla ḥsab imrsi nnsn (tazzit n ufgan, imudar n tgmmi, imɣi ...).

Zɣ kullu tutlayin timaziɣin n ɣilad, ɣwalli akk iqrbn irwasn tamaziɣt taqburt tazaykut nna s yura Ibn Tunart adlis nns tga-tt Taclḥit. Mayad ar itbayyan mzyan ɣ iwaliwn d tguriwin n umawal ad acku llan gisn kra n tguriwin nna ur aɣ tn tafat abla ɣ tutlayt taclḥit d ur llin ɣ tutlayin timaziɣin yaḍn, zund: Aɣwy, Afulkiy, Asid, Tigmmi, Idgam d Dar.

D llan daɣ kra n iwaliwn ɣ udlis ad nna ur llin ɣ taclḥit n ɣilad, wala ɣ tutlayin timaziɣin yaḍn, zund: Kasra (ɣar), Wala (bahra), Aysladd (abla).

Isnubbucn imzwura[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tikklt tamzwarut lli ɣ rad gis ittyura aglam n tajṛṛumt n tutlayt Taclḥit iga tt twuri n asnils almani Hans Stumme (1864–1936), lli d isfɣ udlis nns Handbuch des Schilḥischen von Tazerwalt ɣ usggʷas n 1899. Tɣama-nn tjṛṛumt n Stumme aɣbalu n jṛṛumt n tutlayt Taclḥit lli akkʷ imqqurn i uzgn n tasut. Tamukrist lli s tinn ikkan ɣ ammas n igi nns iga tt asmrs n talsarit timsislit bahra icqqan, nna ittyskarn fad ad tg tamnɣudt, macc ur ar tlkkam ɣ tugt n twal ad tsml kra n usmdya amssusaɣ n imuɣna ittuysawaln. Isfɣ d Stumme ula yat tlknsit n tinfusin n Taclḥit (1895, ittuysnfl gis kra ɣ Stroomer 2002).

Amara wissin lli rad isawl f tutlayt ad iga tt Saɛid Sid Kawi (Saʿīd al-Sidqāwī, 1859-1910), amsiwl n yat zɣ tutlayin timaziɣin n Dzayr. Isfɣ d yad ɣ-akud-ann yan umawal n Twarg (1894), ilmma igllb dar tutlayin timaziɣin n tmazirt n Lmɣrib. Amawal nns Dictionnaire français-tachelh'it et tamazir't (1907) gis agudi n iwaliwn s tutlayt taclḥit d tamaziɣt n waṭlas anammas, d uggar n 20 tiwriqin n tiwinas ubɣirn. Arra ad ibayn gis ittuyskar s yat tɣarast igan taddraft, iqqand ad ittyuɣra s urar n lbal.

Di yiḍ n imnɣi amaḍlan amzwaru, tbayn-d yat tadlist timskrt mẓẓiyn ittyuran s ifassn n yan ukapitan (mn bɛd rad yuɣal akulunil) Léopold-Victor Justinard (1878–1959), ilan yism n Manuel de berbère marocain (dialecte chleuh). Ar gis nttafa ubckil anjṛum igzzuln, yat tlknsit n tinfusin, n tmdyazt d umarg, d kra n imsawaln bahra istawhman, kullutn munn d usuɣl nnsn. Ittyura udlis ad ɣ tizi lliɣ tinn ikka umara isala timhal tiɛṣkṛiyn ɣ tsga n Fas, imikk dffir usdurri afransawi (1912). Yura Justinard ula kigan d idlisn izdin d umzruy n tmazirt n Sus.

Emile Laoust (1876–1952), tamarat takffaḍt lli yuran kigan d idlisn d imgrad izdin d tutlayin timaziɣin, tsfɣ-d ɣ 1921 arra nns Cours de berbère marocain (taẓrigt tis snat tettuysmɣur 1936), gis aslmd n tjṛṛumt d timssirdin itcqqun imikk a s imikk d iwaliwn isgumann, iḍṛiṣn ifulkin (ur lan usuɣl) d yat talgamt n tguriwin.

Isbuɣla Edmond Destaing (1872-1940) bahra tussniwin n umawal n taclḥit s udlis nns Etude sur la tachelḥît du Soûs. Vocabulaire français-berbère (1920) d udlis n Textes berbères en parler des Chleuhs du Sous (Maroc). Inna Destaing mas rad iswuri ɣ yan usnubbc izdin d tajṛṛumt taclḥiyt, macc xtad iggʷran ur rad jjun tẓṛ tifawt.

Isfɣ-d akumunḍun Robert Aspinion adlis n Apprenons le berbère: initiation aux dialectes chleuhs (1953), lli igan yan udlis islmadn tajṛṛumt tanɣmast, mac ur trwi ukan yan imikk. Tilsaritin rxan macc gan imnɣad n Aspinion ḥidn ingrawn imsislitn d ifransawiyn iqdimn.

Ama Tikklt tamzwarut lli ɣ rad gis ittyuskar uglam s tutlayt tanglizt iga tt Outline of the Structure of Shilha (1958) n umara amirikani Joseph Applegate (1925–2003). Iswuri f wawal n imsiwln n ayt Sidi Ifni, ittyura warra s yat tmamkt ur bahra iḥlan nna s icqqa ast sis tɣrt, abla yan umawal lli d ibayn mzyan. Tirsalitin lli gis illan ur bahra msackan d wawal n taclḥit yɛni ur tettuyskar mzyan.

Adlis waḥdu-t nna ɣ tlla tjṛṛumt n tutlayt Taclḥit d nna ittyuran ddu usati asnils atrar iga tt Le Berbère (1988) n umara Lionel Galand (1920–2017), asnils afransawi d amassan n tamaziɣt. Amara ad ixdm kigan ɣ udlis nns f wawal n Iɣccan ɣ idrarn n waṭlas mẓẓiyn, iskr asn ula usmzazal d taqbaylit n Dzayr, d tatwargit n Nijr.

Tasnmslit[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Iɣritn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tutlayt Taclḥit teṭṭaf kraḍ iɣritn imslicann, nna ɣ tiɣzi ur tgi aṣḍḍaṛ imsfru. Ar mmaln iɣritn yat lgamme igan abaraw bahra n imslinyen. Aɣri /a/ art bahra tnṭaqn s [a] nɣ [æ], d /u/ tettuynṭaq bla awd kra n ukrnay anmɣur abla iɣ tettrs taman kra n w. Tilit n kra n targalt afarign da tɣr i asufɣ imslmms uggar n uɣri, zund ɣ tguri n kraḍ [krɐdˤ], kkuẓ [kkɤzˤ], sḍis [sdˤɪs] (smzazal at yan [jæn], sin [sin] d smmus [smmʊs] )

Mnid Anammas Uɣul
Iqqn i u
Irẓmn a

Ar d tbayyan kra n iɣritn imslicann yaḍnin ɣ iwaliwn imaynutn lli d ikkan tutlayin yaḍnin, s umdya / o / zund ɣ rristora "restaurant" (n tfransist).

Iɣritn inkliyn d « schwa »[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Abla kraḍ iɣritn imslican ad, llan kra n iɣritn inkliyn ur gin imslican, nna s ttussan s yism n "schwa". Ɣ tugt n imdyatn, aɣri n tukkit ar nttiẓḍur ad as nssld dffir tuddma n kra n tafirt war aɣri CC nɣ CCC, iɣ tga yat ɣ tirgalin timawayn, nɣ sin itsn, ttuyssladn[20], s umdya tigemmi [tigĭmmi], ameḥḍar [amɐ̆ʜdˤɐr]. Ɣ ammas n twuri n tilsaritin timsislitn lli d skrn Stumme (1899) d Destaing (1920, 1940), tugt n iɣritn inkliyn ad ttyumlan.

kra n imaratn yaḍnin dffir mayad zund Aspinion (1953), sxddmn tamatart ⟨e⟩ fad ad ṛcmn adɣar nna ɣ ittuẓḍar ad gis ttusflad kra n uɣri n tukkit, mknna tga taɣara nns, d ar ttaran ula ⟨e⟩ nɣ ɣ tilawt awd yan uɣri, mqqar akk tay-gzzuln, ur aɣ tettuysflad. S umdya akessab [akssæb] nɣ ar icetta [ar iʃtta]. Tamatart ⟨e⟩, ar as ttinin "schwa", zund talli d isxdm Aspinion d wiyyaḍ yaḍnin, tuɣal d anagraw awnɣan ka ittuysxdamn fad ad iml masd targalt lli t iḍfarn tlla ɣ tuddma n tafirt: [ak⟨e⟩s.sab], [a.ri.š⟨e⟩t.ta]. Mklli s iẓṛa Galand, Asnqḍ n «schwa» ikka d «tamyurt tabṛṛanit n Taclḥit». D mk lli s t daɣ imla s tɣarast yaḍn Ridouane (2008), iɣritn inkliyn nɣ «vocoïdes intrusifs» ur akk imkin ad asn nfk aẓayr n aɣri apanṭatik. Ilmma yuf ad akk ur nttara iɣritn inkliyn d « schwa », d ad nttara iɣritn s tamamkt igan timsislit, mk lli nit iskr Galand (1988) ɣ tiẓrigin kulltn n iḍṛiṣn imaynutn.

Asmkl n hyatus[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

VLC Icon.svg Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Targalin[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

VLC Icon.svg Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Iznaɣritn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

VLC Icon.svg Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Tussi d tiɣzi[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

VLC Icon.svg Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Tuṣkiwt n tafirt[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

VLC Icon.svg Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Anawn n tifirin[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

VLC Icon.svg Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Imitrikn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

VLC Icon.svg Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Tajṛṛumt[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ismawn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

VLC Icon.svg Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Ismawn infliciyn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

VLC Icon.svg Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Ismawn ifliciyn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

VLC Icon.svg Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Ismawn ibṛṛaniyn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Afrux isawaln s taclḥit.

Kra n tguriwin nna d ikkan tutlayt taɛrabt d kra n tguriwin nna mrwasn ɣ tclḥit d tutlayt taɛibrit d tutlayt talatinit d tutlayt taṣbnyulit :

Taclḥit Taɛrabt Taclḥit Taɛibrit Taclḥit Talatinit Taclḥit Taṣbnyulit
afrran frran فران agadir gadir גָּדֵר afullus Pullus acaqqur Segur
aḥddad ḥddad حداد aẓalim bslim בצלים asnus Asinus lficṭa Fiesta
axmmas xmmas خماس aɣanim qanim קנים alili Lilium sskwila Escuela
agzzar jazzar جزار lmd lmud ללמוד taɣawsa Causa cmrir Sombrero
acṭṭab cṭṭab شطاب abaw Faba acnti Centeno

Kra n izwiln nna mrwasn d tutlayin simitik :

Taclḥit Tigrinya Tafiniqit Taɛrabt
5 smmus ḥammuṣ- ḥammuš- ḥmṣ ḥmš xams- xams-
6 sḍis ṣidiṣ- šɨdɨš- ṣṣ šš sitt- sitt-
7 sa ṣubɛat šobʕat- ṣbɛšbʕ sabɛ- sabʕ-
8 tam ṣummun- šommon- ṣmn šmn taman- θamān-
9 tẓa tiṣɛat- tɨšʕat- tṣɛ tšʕ tisɛ- tisʕ-

Aswuri s waddad amaruz[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

VLC Icon.svg Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Tasnamkt n ismawn tiwtmanin[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

VLC Icon.svg Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Imqqimn inimann[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Llan kraḍ tigrummawin n imqqimn inimann:

  • Imzirgn
  • Iklitikn n tɣawsiwin usridn
  • Uḍfiṛn

Abla mayad, llan daɣ sin tigrummawin inafuɣn nna ɣ llan imqqimn ilan uḍfiṛn (abla i umzwaru amyiwn):

  • Iklitikn n tɣawsiwin arusridn
  • Ismmudn imalan

Tawsit tettuymla ɣ tis-snat tamyiwnt d tis-snat d tis-kraṭṭ tamagutt. Tawsit ur tettuymla ɣ tis-kraṭṭ tamyiwnt d tamzwarut tamagutt. Tawsit ur jju ittuymla ɣ ammas n umzwaru amyiwn.

Iklitikn n tɣawsa tusridt
 
Taɣawsa tusridt
clitics
Uḍfiṛn
 
Taɣawsa tarusridt
Iklitikn
Imili
Ismmudn
1 sg. nkki(n) yyi V-Ø / C-i yyi V nw / C inw
2 sg.m. kyyi(n) k -k a-k nn-k
sg.f. kmmi(n) km -m a-m nn-m
3 sg.m. ntta(n) t -s a-s nn-s
sg.f. nttat tt / stt
1 pl.m nkkʷni(n) -nɣ a-ɣ nnɣ
pl.f nkkʷnti(n)
2 pl.m. kʷnni(n) kʷn V-wn / C-un a-wn nn-un
pl.f. kʷnnimti(n) kʷnt V-wnt / C-unt a-wnt nn-unt
3 pl.m. nttni(n) tn -sn a-sn nn-sn
pl.f. nttnti(n) tnt -snt a-snt nn-snt
∅ = walu amurfim

Tutlayt tamdrugt[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ibdr Destaing yat tutlayt tamdrugt igan s yism inmantadubirt nna s sawaln «kra n middn ɣ Sus, slawann akkʷ tarwa d ayt Sidi Ḥmad u Musa». Ifka yan umdya: is kn tusat inman? "is da tsawalt tutlayt tamdrugt ?"

Sin tutlayin timdrugn ttuysawaln dar timɣarin ticlḥiyin ad inna Lahrouchi d Ségéral (2009). Ar as ttinin tagnawt (id ikkan agnaw "walli ur da isslid") d taɛẓmiyt (id ikkan ddarija ɛəẓmiya "tutlayt tabṛṛanit") nɣ taqqẓmiyt. Ar sxdamn kigan n tizigztt fad ad sntln tutlayt awal amagnu.

Addag n tutlayt[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tamdyazt s tutlayt Taclḥit
──o Tafrusyawit 
  ├─o Proto-Tamaziɣt 1 (-7000)
    └─o Proto-Tamaziɣt 2 (-2000)
      ├─o Tamaziɣt n ugafa
        └──o Tamaziɣt n waṭlas
           └──o Taclḥit

Tinidlisn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tajṛṛumt[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  • Robert Aspinion: Apprenons le berbère: initiation aux dialectes chleuhs. Rabat 1952.
  • Abdallah Boumalk, Manuel de conjugaison du tachelhit (langue berbère du Maroc), Paris, L'Harmattan, 2003 - ISBN 2-7475-5527-5
  • Abdallah El Mountassir, Initiation au Tachelhit, langue berbère du sud du Maroc. "Ra nsawal tachelhit", Paris, L'Asiathèque, 1999 - ISBN 2-911053-53-2
  • Hans Stumme, Handbuch des Schilhischen von Tazerwalt. Grammatik, Lesestücke, Gespräche, Glossar, Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1899.

Imawaln[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  • Abdellah Bounfour & Abdallah Boumalk, Vocabulaire usuel du tachelhit, Éditions Centre Tarik Ibn Ziyad, Rabat.
  • Edmond Destaing, Étude sur la tachelḥît du Sous. I- Vocabulaire français-berbère, Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 1920
  • Abdallah El Mountassir, Dictionnaire des verbes tachelhit-français (parler berbère du sud du Maroc), Paris, L'Harmattan, 2003 - ISBN 2-7475-3577-0
  • Antoine Jordan, Dictionnaire berbère-français (dialectes tašelhait), Rabat, Omnia, 1934.
  • Michel Quitout, Grammaire berbère (rifain, tamazight, chleuh, kabyle), Paris, L'Harmattan, 2007 - ISBN 2-7384-6004-6

Taskla[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  • Paulette Galand-Pernet, Littératures berbères, des voix, des lettres, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France - PUF, 1998 - ISBN 2-13-049518-4
  • Paulette Galand-Pernet, Recueil de poèmes chleuhs. I- Chants de trouveurs, Paris, Klincksieck, 1972 - ISBN 2-252-01415-6.
  • Hans Stumme, Dichtkunst und Gedichte der Schluh, Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1895
  • Nico Van den Boogert, The Berber Literary Tradition of the Sous, with an edition and translation of ‘The Ocean of Tears' by Muhammad Awzal (d. 1749), Leiden, Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten (Sticht de Goeje, 27), 1997.

Iḍṛiṣn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  • Edmond Destaing, Textes berbères en parler des Chleuḥs du Sous (Maroc), Paris, Geuthner, 1940.
  • Harry Stroomer, An anthology of Tashelhiyt Berber folktales (South Morocco), Köln, Köppe, 2001 (Berber studies 2) - ISBN 3-89645-381-5
  • Harry Stroomer, Tashelhiyt Berber folktales from Tazerwalt (South Morocco) : a linguistic reanalysis of Hans Stumme's Tazerwalt texts with an English translation, Köln, Köppe, 2002 (Berber studies 4) - ISBN 3-89645-383-1 (riedizione di: Hans Stumme, Märchen der Schluh von Tazerwalt, Lepzig, Hinrichs, 1895)
  • Harry Stroomer, Tashelhiyt Berber texts from the Ayt Brayyim, Lakhsas and Guedmioua region (South Morocco) : a linguistic reanalysis of Récits, contes et légendes berbères en Tachelhiyt by Arsène Roux with an English translation, Köln, Köppe, 2003 (Berber studies 5) - ISBN 3-89645-384-X
  • Harry Stroomer, Tashelhiyt Berber texts from Ida u Tanan (South Morocco), Köln, Köppe, 2004 (Berber studies 9) - ISBN 3-89645-388-2

Ilikitn n imawaln[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tiɣbula[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  1. Taclḥit - Ethnologue (23rd ed., 2020)
  2. Rhythms and Rhymes of Life: Music and Identification Processes of Dutch, Miriam Gazzah, 2008
  3. Perrot d'Ablancourt 1667: 92-93.
  4. Mouliéras, A., 1905. Une tribu zénète anti-musulmane au Maroc les Zkara. p.25.
  5. Van Den Boogert (1997 : 3).
  6. Delaporte et al. 1844, 588.
  7. (Wetzstein 1887 : 34-35).
  8. STUMME, H., 1899. Handbuch des Schilhischen von Tazerwalt. Grammatik, Lesestücke, Gespräche, Glossar. Pp. v. 249. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung., p.3.
  9. 9,0 9,1 et 9,2 Cunninghame Graham, R., n.d. Mogreb-el-Acksa. London: Heinemann, pp.34, 96.
  10. Febrayer.com - Cluḥ d Taclḥit, Maṣmuda d Imṣmudn.
  11. Agrour, R., 2012. Contribution à l’étude d’un mot voyageur : Chleuh. Cahiers d'études africaines, 52(208), pp.767-811.
  12. Stumme (1899: 3); Laoust (1936: v).
  13. Fox et Abu-Talib (1966: 155), Colin (1993: 976).
  14. Awzal, Baḥr al-Dumūʿ , v.5 (édition dans van den Boogert 1997).
  15. RGPH 2014 - Site HCP
  16. Aljazeera.net - Jadal ḥawla ɛadad annaṭiqin bil amaziɣya
  17. Stroomer (2001a:183n1), Stroomer (2008:289n1).
  18. Stumme (1899: 4).
  19. Boukous (1977: 126).
  20. Galand (1988, 2.1).

Isaɣuln i tɣuriwin insmadn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Imgrad imanawn umniḍn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

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Ẓr ula Taclḥit ɣ Wikimawal lli illan ɣ Wikimidya Incubator
Tutlayin Timaziɣin
Tutlayin Amzray Tamaziɣt taqburt†,LB
Gwanc Tagwancit
Agmuḍ Tawilant · Tasknit · Taɣdimsit · Tazrgt · Tanfust · Tasiwit
Agafa Tajnat Aṭlas Anammas AgmuḍanSṬ (Ayt Sɣruccn · Ayt Warayn) · Tanzruft Tagafayt (Tagurart · Tumẓabt · Tamaziɣt n unẓul n Wahran d Figig · Tidiklt · Tuwat · Tugurt · Tagargrnt) · Tarifit · Taznatit tagmuḍant tamɣribit · Ayt Iznasn · Ayt Snus · Tacawit · Tazwarit TatunsitSG (Tajṛbit · Tamaziɣt n Maṭmaṭa · Tasndit · Tawilult) · Tutrimt Tadzayrit (Taclfit · Tacnwit)
Ur igin tijanatin Tamaziɣt n waṭlas (Aṭlas Anammas · Llisan Al-ɣarbi · Taɣumarit · Taṣnhajit n Srayr · Taclḥit) · Taqbaylit
Tinawayin Tamaziɣt Tanawayt Tamɣribit · Tamaziɣt Tanawayt Tadzayrit
Twarg Tamahaq · Tamacq · Tawllammt · Tayart
Anẓul Utrim Tatsrrt · Tuẓẓungiyya
Agmmay Agmmay n Tifinaɣ · Agmmay Alatin · Tirra taɛrabt · Tirra taɛibrit
Timrsal Unbiḍ AAAL (Dzayr) · SNM (Dzayr) · SGSM (Lmɣrib) · DNAFLA (Mali) · CRB (Fransa)
Ur gin unbiḍ Agraw imaziɣn (GM) · Agraw Amaḍlan Amaziɣ (GMM)
SG Ar tzzray s ugmuḍan· SṬ Ar tzzray s Waṭlas · Tutlayt inɣuban · LB Tettyalsbna
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