Tutlayt Taɣdimst

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Taɣdimst
Aẓaran ɣ Libya
Tasga Ɣadamis
Imsiwln imlalutn
13,100 (2006)
Tantlayin Ayt Wazitn, Ayt Ulid
Ingaln n tutlayt
ISO 639-3 gha
Glottolog ghad1239[1]

Tutlayt taɣdimst (Tamaziɣt: Ɛdims, [ʕdimes] nɣ Ɣdams, [ɣdames]; Taɛṛabt: غدامس, [ɣadaːmes]) tga yat tutlayt tamaziɣt ittusawaln ɣ uẓnig n udwwar n Ɣadamis ɣ tsuḍnt n Nalut ɣ Libya.

Asnubbc[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Timttawin f tutlayt taɣdimst smunn tn sin imsnilsn. Timttawin timzwura ifsr tnt Adolphe de Calassanti Motylinski g 1903 d 1904. Gant twuriwin n Jacques Lanfry, lli iɣama g ɣadamis zɣ 1944 ar 1945 ifsr snat twuriwin nns nna istuhmman ɣ 1968 d 1973, asagʷm yufn amzwaru. Ur jjun sul ittuskar kra n usnubbc amaynu f udɣar ad sɣ wakud ann. Ɣ tgariwin ad, ifsr Kossmann (2013) yat tjṛṛumt tatrat ibiddn f tmttawin n Lanfry.

Uṭṭun n imsiwln[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Iqddr Lanfry is llan 4,000 n umsiwl iɣ kullu ggutn[2]. Uṭṭun ɣ tidt ur ittussan min turda. Ar isawal Ethnologue f yan uṭṭan dar 10,000 ɣ 2006 d 2,000 yaḍn iddrn bṛṛa n udɣar. Maccan uṭṭun n 10,000 iga tamuttrt n imzdaɣn Ɣadamis lli kullu ur igin imsiwln n tutlayt taɣdimst. Nnig n aya, Uṭṭun ad n 2,000 n umzwag amswil ibdd f yan usagʷm bahra iqburn[3]. Ethnologue ar tt issiḍin am tutlayt illan g imizi n unɣubu "6b" (Threatened).

Tutlayt[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Taɣdimst tga tutlayt tamaziɣt s waḍu nns, tari mnnawt tmẓlay tisnmslitin d tsnalɣanin timyiwnin. Amawal n tɣdimst, mk lli t izmmim Lafry, ar immal iḍiṣ idrusn zzɣ tɛṛabt. Ur ta illi kra n umsasa f ussinw n tɣdimst gr trabbut n tutlayin timaziɣin. Aikhenvald d Militarev (1984) ar tt ssiḍinn f tmaziɣt n ugmuḍ. Kossmann (1999) ar tt ismun d Twilant. Ethnologue ismma tt am Tajanat n ugmuḍ g ussinw nns.

Tasnmslit[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tirgalin

Zun d tutlayin timaziɣin yaḍn d tɛṛabt, Taɣdimst dars tirgalin tuffayin (pharyngealized) d tɣmsanin (plain dental consonants). Tg tussda tanmyẓlayt (contrastive). Tirgalin ittyubdarn gr taskiwin ar ttjṛun ɣar kra n tikkal (sporadically).

ifunimn n trgalin n Tɣdimst (IPA)
Labial

 
Labio-

dental
Dental

 
Dental

phar.
Palatal

 
Velar

 
Uvular

 
Pharyngeal

 
Glottal

 
Nasal m
Stop

 
(p)

b


t̪ˤ

 

ɟ
k

ɡ
q

 
Fricative

 
 

β
f

 


s̪ˤ

z̪ˤ
ʃ

ʒ
x

ɣ
ħ

ʕ
h

 
Affricate (tʃ)
Approximant w l̪ˤ j
Trill r̪ˤ

Iɣritn

Amata n tutlayin timaziɣin ṭṭafnt ɣar kraḍ iɣritn imslicann.

teṭṭaf Taɣdimst smmus iɣritn zun d tamacq.

ifunimn n iɣritn n Tɣdimst (IPA)
Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Mid ə
Near-open ɐ
Open a

Amawal asilan[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tlla ɣ izdar talgamt n Lipzig-Jakarta n tɣdimst, tettyuskar f aylli illan g Lanfry (1973).

Tinglizt Taɣdimst
1 fire ōfa
2 nose tənzart
3 to go as with verbal deictic n "thither" (cf. 11 to come)
4 water aman (plurale tantum)
5 mouth ame
6 tongue ēləs
7 blood dămmăn (plurale tantum)
8 bone ɣăṣṣ
9 2sg pronoun šăgg(ən) (m.), šămm(ən) (f.)
10 root aẓur "root of plant"
11 to come as with verbal deictic d "hither" (cf. 3 to go)
12 breast bab, admār
13 rain anaẓar
14 1sg pronoun năšš(ən)
15 name ism
16 louse talləkt
17 wing afraw
18 flesh/meat aksəm
19 hand/arm ōfəss "hand", āɣil "arm"
20 fly izi
21 night ēβăḍ
22 ear ēsəm
23 neck takorəmt (cf. 47 back)
24 far (not attested)
25 to do/make əqḍu "to do, achieve" < Arabic, ăj "to put, to make"
26 house daž, taddart
27 stone/rock ērəj
28 bitter iẓēk "to be bitter"
29 to say ăn
30 tooth asēn "incisor", taɣməst "molar", tawjlet "canine"
31 hair azaw
32 big (not attested)
33 one yōn (m.), yōt (f.)
34 who? anno
35 3sg pronoun (n)itto (m.), (n)ittāt (f.)
36 to beat/hit ŏwət
37 leg/foot aḍar
38 horn aškaw
39 this -o
40 fish (not attested)
41 yesterday ənḍəβăd
42 to drink ăsw
43 black săṭṭăf "to be black" (perfective stem; aorist stem not attested)
44 navel tamet
45 to stand ăβdəd "to be standing", ăkkər "to stand up"
46 to bite ămbər
47 back akorm, təkurmēn (cf. 23 neck)
48 wind aḍo "wind, odour"
49 smoke ōβo
50 what? ke, me
51 child (kin term) ara, tarwa
52 egg tasadəlt
53 to give ăkf
54 new (not attested)
55 to burn (intr.) ărɣ
56 not wăl, ak
57 good samēḥ < Arabic
58 to know ăssən
59 knee ōfəd
60 sand tamallilt
61 to laugh ăḍs
62 to hear ăsl
63 soil tammurt "earth, soil"
64 leaf təfra "leaf of tree"
65 red azŭggaɣ "red one" (prob. /azəggʷaɣ/)
66 liver tōsa
67 to hide əkənn
68 skin/hide ēlăm "animal skin"
69 to suck ăzməm
70 to carry ăbb "to carry, bring", ăškəl "to carry, lift"
71 ant takəṭfet
72 heavy ăẓẓāk "to be heavy" (perfective stem; aorist stem not attested)
73 to take āβăʕ "to take", ōməẓ "to seize, hold"
74 old imqōr, iwsər "to be old, elderly (human)"
75 to eat ăšš
76 thigh taɣma
77 thick izwər "to be thick"
78 long əzzəjrət "to be long"
79 to blow sβəḍ
80 wood asɣēr "(piece of) wood"
81 to run ăzzəl
82 to fall ōḍu
83 eye awăll
84 ash ēšəd
85 tail tabaḥṣuṣṣ < Arabic?
86 dog ēde
87 to cry/weep ăẓẓəf
88 to tie ăqqēn
89 to see ălləm
90 sweet (not attested)
91 rope tazara
92 shade/shadow tēle
93 bird ajaḍiḍ
94 salt tēsənt
95 small imtēt "to be small"
96 wide (not attested)
97 star iri
98 in dəj, -i
99 hard (not attested)
100 to grind/crush ăẓəd "to grind", ăddəβ "to crush (in a mortar)"

Tabiblyugraft[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Isugam[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds (2017). "Ghadames". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/ghad1239. 
  2. Lanfry (1973:iv).
  3. Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd edition, article Ghadāmis (1952): 2,000 persons with a background in Ghadames living in Tunis; quoted by Lanfry (1973:iv).
Tutlayin Timaziɣin
Tutlayin Amzray Tamaziɣt taqburt†,LB
Gwanc Tagwancit
Agmuḍ Tawilant · Tasuknit · Taɣdimst · Tazrgt · Tanfust · Tasiwit
Agafa Tajnat Aṭlas Anammas AgmuḍanSṬ (Ayt Sɣruccn · Ayt Warayn) · Tanzruft Tagafayt (Tagurart · Tumẓabt · Tamaziɣt n unẓul n Wahran d Figig · Tidiklt · Tuwat · Tugurt · Tagargrnt) · Tarifit · Taznatit tagmuḍant tamɣribit · Ayt Iznasn · Ayt Snus · Tacawit · Tazwarit TatunsitSG (Tajṛbit · Tamaziɣt n Maṭmaṭa · Tasndit · Tawilult) · Tutrimt Tadzayrit (Taclfit · Tacnwit)
Ur igin tijanatin Tamaziɣt n waṭlas (Aṭlas Anammas · Llisan Al-ɣarbi · Taɣumarit · Taṣnhajit n Srayr · Taclḥiyt) · Taqbaylit
Tinawayin Tamaziɣt Tanawayt Tamɣribit · Tamaziɣt Tanawayt Tadzayrit
Twarg Tamahaq · Tamacq · Tawllammt · Tayart
Anẓul Utrim Tatsrrt · Tuẓẓungiyya
Agmmay Agmmay n Tifinaɣ · Agmmay Alatin · Agʷmmay Amaziɣ Aɛṛab · Tirra taɛibrit
Timrsal Unbiḍ AAAL (Dzayr) · SNM (Dzayr) · SGSM (Lmɣrib) · DNAFLA (Mali) · CRB (Fransa)
Ur gin unbiḍ Agraw imaziɣn (GM) · Agraw Amaḍlan Amaziɣ (GMM)
SG Ar tzray s ugmuḍan· SṬ Ar tzray s Waṭlas · Tutlayt inɣuban · LB Tettyalsbna
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