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Mrrakc

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Mrrakc
Lmɣrib
Tamssugurt
TamazirtLmɣrib
TamnaḍtTamnaḍt n Mrrakc-Asfi
Tamnbaḍtaɣir n Amurakuc
TamdintMerrakec
Anssixf n tnbaḍt Fatima-Zahra Mansouri
Ism amaddud مراكش
Ism aqqbur Mrrakc
مراكش
ⵎⵕⵕⴰⴽⵛ
Inigl asaway 40000
Tajɣraft
0°0′0″N 0°0′0″E
 31°37′46″N 7°58′52″W / 31.62947°N 7.98108°W / 31.62947; -7.98108
Tajumma 230 km²
Tattuyt 468 m
Tdimuɣraft
Imzdaɣn 966 987 n imzdaɣn (2020)
Umlan yaḍnin
Asrus n trsal 1065
Akud adigan heure d'Europe de l'Ouest d UTC±00:00
Timdinin tikniwin Susa, Granada, Murṣilyya, Clermont-Ferrand, Timbuktu, Tachkent, Ajaccio, Tours, New York, Mkka, Paris, Madrid, Odessa, Sidi Bennour d Granby
ville-marrakech.ma

Tga MrrakcMṛṛakc (ar as ttinin ɣilad s yism iẓlin s tmallayt Tamdint taẓggʷaɣtTiɣrmt n wayniwn) yat tmdint ɣ Lmɣrib. Nttat ad igan tis kṛaḍt n tmdinin mqqurnin g tgldit n Lmṛṛuk s uṭṭun amqqran n imzdaɣn gis illan[1]. Tg amnru n tsga n Mṛṛakc-asfi. Taga 580 id kilu mitr d tɣrmt n Ṭanja ɣ iffus aminig, 327 id kilu mitr d tmaẓunt n tgldit n lmṛṛuk Ṛṛbaṭ ɣ iffus aminig, 239 id kilu mitr d Tgmmi tumlilt (ḍḍaṛlbiḍa) ɣ iffus aminig, 246 id kilu mitr d tɣrmt n Ugadir ɣ iẓẓlmḍ aminig. Tga Mrrakc tiɣrmt yat tmdint lli sul iḥḍan assaɣ nns amaziɣ aqbur, tiɣrmt lli imlan i umaḍal tamurt n Lmṛṛuk ɣ yan uzmz azayku yutn s iẓuṛan nns f zrin t kigan n tasutin g umzruy n tmurt n Lmṛṛuk azayku.

Asbddi n tɣrmt illa g usggʷas n 1062, g ufus n Bubkr iwis n Aɛmaṛ Almtuni, lli igan anbdad d iwis n daddas n ugllid i imṛabṭin, Yusf u Tacfin, tg tmdint akud ann amnru n tmbṛaṭuṛit tamṛabṭit. Macc llan kra n isnubbucn ar ttinin mas tbdd tɣrmt tili yad lli dat n usggʷas ann. Tkka tt nn tɣrmt tga yat zɣ kkuẓt n tɣrmin timbṛaṭuṛin g Lmṛṛuk. G tasut tis mrawt d sin, bnan gis imṛabṭin kigan n tinmal timslmin (tinmal n lqʷṛan) d tmzgidawin timṛṛakciyin lli igan anaw n tid illan g Wandalus. Iɣʷrban izggʷaɣn n tɣrmt, lli ibna Ɛli u Yusf u Tacfin g usggʷas n 1123-1122, d kigan n igadirn lli ibna, ibna tn akkʷ s uẓṛu n umlal azggʷaɣ g tizi ann, tili tɣrmt s kigan assaɣ n tɣrmt tazggʷaɣt, s uklu n igadirn nns. Tmɣar tmdint n Mṛṛakc s tzzla, tili ɣ yat tsskʷflt tamajgalt tg ammas adlsan asgdan admsan n tmazɣa akkʷ d tfriqt d iffus n tniri tamqrant. Ig usays n Jamɛ Lfna asays ittamun kigan s ufgan g tafriqt akkʷ.

Kigan n izmaz ad izrin tili tɣrmt g uswir amggaru, macc tiẓḍaṛ sul ad tzri g uswir tiɣrmt n Fas, macc ɣ tasut n ṣḍiṣt d mraw, tiwrri tg Mṛṛakc tikklit yaḍn amnru n tgldit. Tssiwrri d tɣrmt atig nns akswat g ddaw n tnbaḍt n igldan isɛdin id bu wadrim, bab n waddur anbdad n wanaḍ n ṛbbi asɛdi d Aḥmad Lmnṣuṛ Ddhbi, lli isfalkin tamdint s iɣrman ixatarn ilan addur akswat zun d iɣrm n Lbadi (1578), ullsn taska i kigan n isglaln lli d ufan xxurban. Zɣ tasut n sa d mraw, ttawssan tɣrmt tg asanzal n sa iṣufin igʷrramn lli ittawmḍaln gis.

G usggʷas n 1912 tasut n ufrag afṛanṣi g Lmṛṛuk iga Tthami Aglawwu lbaca n Mṛṛakc, yili g tsɣnt ann zɣ ufrag ar azmz n trlli n tmurt, lliɣ issfal ungraw agldan g usggʷas n 1956. G usggʷas n 2009, tga Faṭima Zzhṛa Lmnṣuṛi tanbdadt n tɣiwant n Mṛṛakc, tg tamɣart tis snat lli igan amɣiwan g Lmṛṛuk akkʷ.

Ass ad, tga yat zɣ tɣrmin timallayin lli bahra ittawssann g tfriqt akkʷ, tswuri alliɣ tga ammas admsan aslway n tmallayt g tmazɣa akkʷ awd tafriqt, tamallayt nns lli isggur ugllid amṛṛuki Muḥmmad wis sḍiṣ, ig uwttas nns ad igatn imallayn lli d ittddun s Lmṛṛuk alliɣ ilkm uṭṭun nnsn 20 mlyun n umallay s usggʷas n 2020. Mqqar tlla tassast tadmsant, tmɣar tska igatn isnsa g Mṛṛakc s kigan g tasut n sin d mraw d yan. Tlla Mṛṛakc g yat tskkʷflt tamajgalt tamqrant, tẓli bahra dar imallayn d tugt n inaẓuṛn imḍlann d itran n umaḍal, lli iṭṭfn ayda nnsn g tɣrmt ad.

Illa g Mṛṛakc yan ugadaz amqran azayku amzruy imqqurn g Lmṛṛuk akkʷ, agadaz ad illa g ugnsu nns ma ittggan 18 n ugadaz lliɣ a ttnuzant tɣawsiwin (zɣ uẓṭṭa amaziɣ amzray ar imassn aliktṛuniyn imaynutn). Iswuri g tmiḍi tazaykut (tabldit) uṭṭun mqqurn n imzdaɣ, lli izznzan tiɣawsiwin nnsn i imallayn. Tili g Mṛṛakc yat tsayst mmi igudar tazaykut lli yuman s imznuza d lkyuṣkat nnsn tili g tɣrmt tazaykut (taqdimt) ig udɣar ann ayda lli tga Yunisku d tngmi tamḍlant.[2]

Tiwatlin lli illan g tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc, illa uzagʷz n taylalin n Mṛṛakc Lmnaṛa Amaḍlan, d usbdud n ubrid n wuzzal (Asbdud n ulaway n Mṛṛakc) lli izdin tiɣrmt n Mṛṛakc d Tgmmi tumlilt d iẓẓlmḍ n lmṛṛuk akkʷ. Llant g Mṛṛakc kigan n tsdawiyin d tinmal, yat zgisnt tasdawit n Qaḍi Ɛyyaḍ. Ilin gis kigan n imarisn n tunnunt n tawjja n uḍaṛ tamṛṛukit, zgisn amaris n Itri Amṛṛakci d amaris n Lkawkab Amṛṛakci d umaris n Muludiya n Mṛṛakc. Ar ttilin g Mṛṛakc imḥizwarn n tmɣurin (timssudutin) timaḍlanin n tmarrayt d imḥizwarn n tmssudutin n tsmɣurt n lfuṛmila 2.

Aẓuṛ n yism

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Llan kigan n warratn d kigan n tullisin ar sawaln t f unamk n wassaɣ n tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc,[3]ikk d uẓuṛ n wassaɣ n Mṛṛakc zɣ tawalt ‘amurakuc’ (s tutlayt tamaziɣt ‘amur n akuc)[4]. lli igan s unamk akal n ṛbbi s tɛṛabt: وطن الله. iklli tbdr tmzrawt tamzruyt ‘suzan sirayt’, mas ittyura wassaɣ n tmdint tikklit izwarn g yat tnfult lli d ikkan tasut tis mrawt d yan g tsdlist n iqarawin g tɣrmt n fas, tirra ann fkan t as anamk n ‘ tamurt n tarwa n akuc’ s tɛṛabt: بلد أبناء أكوش. tawalt n ‘amur’ ar tt addrnt middn s ɣilad s tawtmant ‘tamurt’, d awd tawalt ad nit n ‘amur’ tlla g wassaɣ n muriṭanya, tagldit n iẓẓlmḍ n tfriqt ‘tamazɣa’ g izmaz izaykutn lli izrin. assaɣ n Mṛṛakc as ttawssan tmurt ad akkʷ dar tmizar yaḍnin, ar nn tt afa tawalt ad tlla sul g ils n tutlayin yaḍn zund tafarisit(Mṛṛakc) d tsbanyulit(maṛṛiykus) d tnglizt (muṛṛuku).

Aẓuṛ n ism n murakuc niɣ Mṛṛakc igat «amur n wakuc». amur iga akal d wakuc iga smit lli stin kan ar ttinin i rbi. smit n Mṛṛakc tsrg i tutlayin tiṛumiyin alliɣ a ttinin i lmɣrib. ar ttinin ifransawiyn «maṛuk», isblyuniyn «maṛṛukus», ibrtqqizn nɣd iburtuɣaliyn ar ttinin «maṛṛukus», ngalza ar ttinin «muṛṛuku», ilalmaniyn ar ttinin «maṛṛuku». abla iturkiyn lli as ittinin «fas», d iraniyn lli as ittinin «muṛṛakuc».

Zɣ tasutin izwarn ar assnti n tasut simraw, ikka tt inn wamur n lmṛṛuk akkʷ ittawssan s ism n (tgldit n Mṛṛakc), acku tizi ann Mṛṛakc aggan amnru amzray n tgldit. assaɣ n lmṛṛuk ar ɣilad ittawssan dar kigan n tutlayin s ‘Mṛṛakc’, ar iffus n asya.[4].

Amzruy

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Tamnaḍt n Mṛṛakc

Ikka tt inn yili sul izdɣ g tmnaḍt n Mṛṛakc imkrazn imaziɣn zɣ tasut n uẓṛu tamaynut, ttyafant kigan n tmatarin d imassn n uẓṛu g udɣar ad. tlla tbdd Mṛṛakc tga tiɣrmt g usggʷas n 1062, g ufus n bubkr iwis n aɛmaṛ almtuni, lli igan anbdad ig iwis n daddas n ugllid amṛabṭi Yusf u Tacfin (1106-11061). Ɣ tasut n twja tamaziɣt tamṛabṭit, ttskant kigan n tmzgidawin d tinmal timslmin (tinmal n lqʷṛan), allig imqqur umun ig ammas admsan d tsbbabt g tmazɣa akkʷ awd tfriqt iffus n tiniri.

Tmqqur Mṛṛakc s tizzla tg ammas admsan asgdan, tili g uswir lliɣ tt inn tkka aɣmat, lli s tt inn ikkan ɣ ɣad izrin tga amnru n tmnaḍt n lḥuz. id bab n tzzulin tizaykutin indalusin zɣ tqṛṭubt d tcblit bnan sfalkin kigan n iɣrman g tɣrmt, allig ifalki uggar anaw amawi lli s ttawssan tqubba d igllayn lli ittawmḍaln g tmdint. imsasa wanaw ad andalusi d wanawn n tẓuṛi n tiniri d tagut n tfriqt, allig iga mayan yan wanaw iẓlin s uẓkka n udɣar n Mṛṛakc akkʷ. ikmml yusf iwis n tacfin timzgida tamzwarut g tɣrmt (timzgida n iwis n yusf, lli illan f wassaɣ nns). ttbnant tgʷmma, tddz gis tgʷrict n idrimn, ikcm d urɣ d uẓṛf s tɣrmt s ikabaṛn lli d sis ikccmn. tga tɣrmt g uzmz ann amnru n tgldit tamṛabṭit, lli iswuttan zg iftasn n ssinigal ar tuẓẓumt n ssbanyul d iftasn n yill n waṭlaṣ ar tiɣrmt n dzayr.

Lliɣ iwala unbḍ n lmuwaḥidin[4] kcmn tamdint asggʷas n 1147, gn tt amnru n tnbaḍt nnsn. gn gis kigan n tmatarin igan tin umzruy lli sul igan addur d ifl umzruy s ɣilad zun d tassumɛit n lkutubiya s snat tmzgidawin nnsn, d igudar, imawn, turtatin, d tilggʷit illan f wasif n tansift tɣama sul s ɣilad tga tin ubrid ar azmz ad izrin lli d yaẓn. ɣikad as tssn Mṛṛakc yat g ddaw n tnbaḍt n imuḥidn yan uẓnẓṛ mqquṛn lli s tt igan d yan wammas asrtan admsan adlsan ur illi wanaw nns g tsga n tagut tamslmt.

Lliɣ tamum tnbaḍt n imuḥidn kkusan imriniyin lli d ikkan iming (iming n Lmṛṛuk) asggʷas n 1269 tamdint macc skrn g tɣrmt n fas amnru nnsn acku tmlal i tmazirt nnsn lli igan aẓuṛ nnsn, s ɣikan tḍḍṛ Mṛṛakc s uswir ɣ tt inn tkka, tg ammas wis sin g tmurt. ɣ usggʷas n 1551 tsswrri d tɣrmt aswir nns g ddu n tnbaḍt n isɛdin (1659-1589). g tasut nnsn ag bnan kigan n tẓkka tamaynut yan zɣ gisn iɣrm n lbdiɛ d wamun n imuwasin d tinml n iwis n yusf d iṣmḍal n isɛdin d aṭṭaṣ n tsugam.

Ɣ ddu n tnbaḍt n iɛalawin, yuls Mulay Ṛacid i tska n tmzgida n iwis ṣalḥ amrini, d lliɣ t inn iḍfaṛ mulay smaɛil ur tt sul yiwi g tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc, irur taɣḍft nns s tmdint n umknas. macc agllid mass muḥmmad immaɣ yulls i tska n tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc bac ad as d issiwrri aswir llig tlla, lliy yad immaɣ ad ibnu isfalki i tẓkka n tɣrmt d awd ibna tmatarin yaḍn timaynutin. nẓḍaṛ ad nini mas tkmml tawlaft n Mṛṛakc g tagara zɣ lliɣ issfal unbḍ n ugllid ad. g ḍaṛat n tnbaḍt nns kullu willi d yuckan is aka ttalsn i tẓkka d tska n tɣrmt, mayad nnsn issfal zg tasut tamuẓunt.

Tajugṛafit

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Asif n urika g tanila n Mṛṛakc

Ɣ iggi n wakal, taggug Mṛṛakc 580 id kilu mitr iffus n tagut n ṭanja, d 327 id kilu mitr iffus n tagut n tɣrmt n ṛṛbaṭ, d 239 id kilu mitr iffus n tagut n tgmmi tumlilt (anfa), d 196 id kilu mitr iffus n tagut n bni amllal, 177 kilu mitr iming n mmu ugadir (taṣṣuṛt), d 246 kilu mitr iẓẓlmḍ n ugadir. tuma tmdint n Mṛṛakc s iẓẓlmḍ zg tuẓẓumt n tɣrmt tazaykut d min as yutsn ddawdiyat d tgʷmma n ddrawc (dyuṛ lmsakin) d mas ɛbbad ( sidi ɛbbad) d ssqṛ d umrcic, ar iffus aminig n (mass yusf iwis n ɛli), s tagut ar masrad trja, f iffus n tagut n lmḥamid bṛṛa n uzagʷz. f ubrid p2017 lli itt awin s iffus n tɣrmt s tmizar d iḍuṛan mqqurn zun d dwaṛ lhna, d twajana, lkwasm, d lahibitcat. lli itt awin izri g tnzruft ar tɣrmt n tḥnnawt lli illan f isil n waṭlaṣ mqqurn, lli igan adrar mqqurn g tmazɣa akkʷ. ar ilkkm usɣal lli idl udfl g waṭlaṣ mqqurn uggar n 3000 mitru. adrar ann iga uggar n wakal nns aẓṛu ajiri ajuṛasi. yuma udrar n waṭlaṣ amqqran f tiɣzi nns aftas n yill n waṭlaṣ, issuda f iming n ugadir iddu ar iẓẓlmḍ aminig n dzayr allig ibdd g tuns.

Illa wasif n iwrikn f tmaggugt n 30 id kilu mitr iffus n Mṛṛakc, iẓḍaṛ ufgan ad ismaqql adrar n yaguṛ lli idln s udfl amllal zɣ iffus n tmdint. ikka tt inn umsksl amirikani (dafid briskut barwuz) imla Mṛṛakc s wassaɣ n (tɣrmt tamzwagt) lli ɣ a isawal f tzdugi nns inna:

" Tlla tɣrmt ngr 15 niɣ 20 mil taggug f isil n udrar n waṭlaṣ lli d fllas ittaggʷan yattuy fllas kigan tg tawlaft nns tad iẓlin tafalkayt. aḍu n tnzruft izddign, iẓḍaṛ usmmaqql a iggr i tfras yattuyn n udrar ann zɣ tsga n iẓẓlmḍ d iming, idl t udfl acmrar n tgrst, d ignwan iggi nns ifiruzn lli fllas igan iwutta i iẓṛan imɣdiddin d txfawin nnsn tanafllatin lli d dar yan ufulki ur illi wanaw nns. "

Adrar n laṭlaṣ amqran d ittaggʷan f  Mṛṛakc

Tasna n Mṛṛakc tga 130000 n hiktaṛ n tsna tazgzat d uggar n 180000 n taddagt n tiyni g urti n tayniwin n Mṛṛakc, tga tɣrmt yat tẓnagt ɣ tmun tuga immrkksn. f tɣzi i imirn n usggʷas, llan g turtit n ugdal d turtit n lmnaṛa d turtatin yaḍn n tɣrmt addagn n litcin d wazar d ṛmman d tzmmurt d mad lan n wanaw d ikʷlan d igumma. ẓlin t turtatin n tmdint s kigan n tuga tinamurin awd tid d ickmn zɣ tmizar n bṛṛa tasutin lli izrin, zɣ gisn lxayzuran amqran d lyukas d lbardi d wanawn n tayniwin yaḍn d waddagn n lbanan d ssru d wadagn n tayri d tuẓutin n ujjig d lbuɣnaqilya d waddagn n ubuhu d kigan n wanawn n tuẓutin n uknari.

Anzwi

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Tddr Mṛṛakc g unzwi izwan, g tgrst anzwi nns amṛwaṣu ilmumin, g unbdu izwa irɣ, tirɣi tamṛwaṣut g tmdint tlla ngr 28-29 n tsskkʷflt g imir n unbdu d 12 n tsskkʷflt ɣ tgrst, irwas usɣl n uẓaṛ iṭṭaṛn g Mṛṛakc g tgrst asɣl n unẓaṛ g tmnaḍin akkʷ n yill acmlal amṛwaṣu, macc asɣl ann idrus f usɣl ittilin g tɣrmin n iẓẓlmḍ amṛwaṣu. aɣawas ad ar immal tisskkʷfal[5] n trɣi ɣ Mṛṛakc s ma ila usggʷas:[6]

ayyur innayr ibṛayr maṛṣ ibrir may yunyu yulyuz ɣuct cutanbir ktubṛ nwanbir dujambir
azmmem n trɣi 33 34 37 42 46 47 49 48 46 43 39 34
azmmem n uṣmmiḍ -6 -2 4 5 7 9 14 15 10 6 4 -2

Tanfalit n imzdaɣn

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Mk lli imla usiḍn n usggʷas n 2014, ilkm uṭṭun n imzdaɣ g Mṛṛakc 928.850 n ufgan ɣ mnid n uṭṭun n 843.575 n ufgan asggʷas n 2004. ig uṭṭun n tawjiwin g usggʷas n 2014, llig ilkm uṭṭun n tawja 217.245 n takat ɣ mnid n 173603 n tawja g usggʷas n 2004[7].

Tadamsa

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Tawlaft n usays n Jamɛ Lfna ɣ yiḍ

Mṛṛakc tga yan wammas g tddr tdamsa tudrt ibuɣlan d tussna n Lmṛṛuk. Asɣudu n ibridn imsazzaln ngr ugadir d tgmmi tumlilt d uzagʷz lmnaṛa lli bahra iziydn i uṭṭun n imallayn ɣ tɣrmt, ibrdan ad d uzagʷz ad lli d itt awin i tɣrmt uggar n ma ittggan sin id lmlyun n umallay zɣ kra iga tt tmazirt g umaḍal kra iga tt asggʷas. lliɣ tla tmallayt yan waddur amqran g tdmsa n lmṛṛuk, agllid muḥmmad wis sḍiṣ iwis n lḥasan lli ifkan awal mas rad d t awi tsrtit n tgldit nns 20 id lmlyun n umallay kra iga tt asggʷas s lmṛṛuk urta ilkm usggʷas n 2020, ig uṭṭun n imallayn aslag ɣ usggʷas n 2012. tiɣrmt tuma s ifṛansin, isɣa gis kigan n unaẓuṛ d willi ittawssann ifṛansin kigan n wakal d tgʷmma, zɣ gisn id bab n lmuḍa ‘if san luṛan’ d ‘jun bul gutti’.

Ɣ tasut lli izrin, iddr g tɣrmt yan uṭṭun idrusn n ibṛṛaniyn, macc isnfarn n tgmi tafrkant ggudin g isggʷasn ad id 15 lli izrin, lliɣ ilkm usggʷas n 2005 isɣa uggar n 3000 n ubṛṛani tafrka g tmdint, tlditn d tussna nns d watig n tzduɣt lli mi idrus waddur. ittawbdar mayad g tsɣunt tamalast tafṛanṣist ‘luban’ mas Mṛṛakc tga yan usbdad n tugtt n taylalin tuṛubiyin.

Igadazn d wammasn n tsbbabt

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Tasbbabt n tɣawsiwin tizaykutin ɣ igadazn n tɣrmt n mṛṛakc

Mṛṛakc dars yan ugadaz azayku lli bahra imqqurn g lmɣrib (lmṛṛuk) tiɣrmt n Mṛṛakc, tbuɣla sis tadamsa, tili tmndint tawlaft nns ifulkin bahra ɣar s ugadaz nns amqqran lli yutn s iẓuṛan nns g umzruy n tɣrmt. inna ‘bul sulifan’ f igadazn n Mṛṛakc mas gan yan udɣar lli d izwarn dar imzdaɣ d imallayn ad tẓrn :( aqṣṛi n tammnt lli igan iswak izdin ngr mmnzrin ngr asn, tasga yad lli igan kra iẓlin ɣ tɣrmt tazaykut n Mṛṛakc iga s ixf nns tiɣrmt mẓẓiyn, iman gis yan uṭṭun iggudin n lkyuṣkat d tḥuna n tsbbabt, mẓẓiyn t zdin t gr asn t krin t gnt zun d inziggn n ɛala ddin lli bahra yuman s tugt n tzuzaf ismriqqiyn iɣ nn disn tkcm t.)   Ɣ umzruy kkan tt inn igadazn ad bḍan f wammasn iẓlin s uzznzi n tsbbabt istin zun d azznz n ilm, d uẓṭṭa, d izuɣar d idqqi. illa sul ukan ubṭṭu ngr wammasn ad macc s yat tɣarast tamaynut ur igin zun d talli s tt inn tkka, tkcm nn gis awd tsbbabt n tɣawsiwin timaynutin. kigan n igadazn n Mṛṛakc ar gisn inzza uẓṭṭa d tmlsa tmaslmt taqburt, d wacckaṛn n ilm, d usufa. ar ukan sul ttawan middn ɣ igadazn ad f watig n tɣawsiwin ad.

Igadazn

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Tasbbabt n tɣawsiwin n tɛṭṭaṛt tizaykutin ɣ igadazn n tɣrmt n mṛṛakc

Agdz n Ismmaṛn: ig ugadaz lli imɣarn g tɣrmt walli ilan assaɣ n (agdz n ismmaṛn), lliɣ a tnzza tawqqant, ṣṣnaḍl, d idukan ilan tizuzaf iṭṭfn ikʷlan icnan, d imsggiwrn n ilm, d tzuzaf n urɣ d uẓṛf, d tmlsa iẓlin s tffugliwin.

Agdz n Ubluḥ: llan g ugdz n ubluḥ kra n lkyuṣkat lli iẓlin s uẓmma n litcin, d ififl iḥṛṛan (tahrist), lkabaṛ, d igumma ittawsyyaṛn, azmmur adal d uzggʷaɣ d usggan, d liqamt, ig adɣar n watay ittmunan d iẓmmatn imɣribin.

Agdz n Kcaca: iẓli ugadaz ad s uzznz n igumma lli izwan, d lfakit, zund tiyni, d tazart, d waqqayn n tswik, d lluz, d lkaju, d lmcmac.

Agdz n Ṛṛḥbt azayku: lli iẓlin s tsbbabt n isknan ittẓḍan s ufus, d tujjutin, d ṭṭṛabc ittawskarn s ufus, d tmlsa yaḍn zun d liẓaṛat, d ljinsing, d ilm n igwana.

ilin igadazn yaḍn zund agadaz n isyyaɣn iẓlin s tzuzaf, d ugdz n smata ittawssann tiram n uɣlal (lbabbuc) d uzznz n iɣuda. ili ugdz n icṛṛaṭn lli g llan imassn n ilm, d ugdz n blɛarf ar gis nzzan t tɣawsiwin ad timaynutin lli ttnawaln middn ɣilad. d ugdz n id bab n uzzal lliɣ llan imassn n uzzal d isufa n uzzal (lfnaṛ).

ili ɣ gr igadazn ad ammas n tiniḍi lli f tbdd tnbaḍt, ili g wammas ad tiwuriwin n tẓuṛi timẓẓan d tiniḍi d tɣawsiwin n ilm zun d aẓṭṭa aqbur d tmẓẓilla n tmzgadiwin. ar gis ttlmadn awd imlmadn iḥudrin f ifassn n trubba n idbab n tiniḍi inmɣurn.

Tamallayt

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Tamallayt g mṛṛakc

Tga tmallayt kra ilan addur i tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc ifk as yan uswir yattuyn, ɣ gr tmdinin n tmallayt ɣ umaḍal. lliɣ illa dar tmdint ad ayda ggutn lli as d ifl umzruy nns, tg ula tiɣrmt n igrawn imaḍalan.

Isnsutn

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Asnsu n mṛṛakc

Asnsu gan sin wanawn, llan isnsa imaynutn imqquṛn lli d tsckm tmallayt n umaḍal, ilin isnsa izaykutn lli izdin kigan d tawssna n Mṛṛakc d tin lmɣrib akkʷ. isnsa izaykutn bahra lli igan kra s ttawssan tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc zɣ zik, anaw ad n isnsa illa ɣ kigan n tmizar n umaḍal aqbur. isnsa ad ar tn inn nttafa gan snat tdaliwin waha (taskka), ilin t gis tmṣṛay lli issutln i usarag lliɣ a ittili lḥuḍ g tlla tuga d ijjign niɣ d taddagt, tadala n wakal ar gis skarn id bab n usnsu adɣar ɣ ḥḍḍun tiɣawsiwin d imudar d isnwi, macc tidaliwin n uflla llant gis tmṣṛay d ɣ illi ɣ anssan isbbabn d ittackan zɣ bṛṛa n tɣrmt. gan isnsa ad awd ammasn n twuri, isnsa ad ar bahra ttilin f tɣzi n ubrid amqran lli illan g tɣrmt niɣ f tsga n imawn n tɣrmt, taftn inn mlaln kigan i igadazn d idɣarn lliɣ llan isbbabn d id bab n tniḍi. zund asnsu lli imlaln i ugdz iẓlin s tamimt, ar tin nttafa ila assaɣ n usnsu n skkaṛ, acku iẓli s isbbabn n tmsaɣt n skkaṛ. ili awd usnsu n tɛṭṭaṛt, lli iẓlin awd nttan ɣas s isbbabn n tmsaɣt n tɛṭṭaṛt. ilin kigan n isnsa iẓlin s wanawn n tɣawsiwin yaḍn tizi ann, bdrn warratn n umzruy mas tt inn kkan g Mṛṛakc isnsa iẓlin s trubba n isgdan iṣufin.

Asnsu n ṛṛyaḍ Mugaḍuṛ n Mṛṛakc
Asnsu n Mṛṛakc azayku (lxan)

Llan isnsa g Mṛṛakc zɣ lliɣ issfal umzruy n tlalit nns. tlla tizi ɣ buɣlan tattuy twuri nnsn ili uzmz maɣ nɣuban qqnn ttuntn middn, izdi mayan d umzruy d ussan n tɣrmt lli tddr. azmz lliɣ bahra tlla tɣrmt ɣ uswir yattuyn buɣlun ɣ tizi ann isnsa ad, iga t uzmz n imṛabṭin d imuḥidn(lmuwaḥidin) tasut n (yan d mraw d tasut n kraḍ d mraw), d uzmz n isɛdin tasut n (sḍis d mraw), awd azmz ɣ tlla tɣrmt ddaw n tnbaḍt n kra igldan iɛalawin lli tn d iḍfaṛn. macc tasut n simraw, idwr umun lliɣ tlla tɣrmt g ufus n fṛansa (1912-1956), lliɣ tmɣar tmdint n Mṛṛakc tffaɣ akkʷ ngr igudar nns imzruyn, ar d tmuddun ibudrarn d middn lli issutln i tɣrmt d wiyyaḍ d ikkan tiɣrmawin yaḍn n lmɣrib, dwrn t kigan n tgʷmma d ṛyaḍat n middn d wammasn lmxzn gn isnsa s watig idrusn. tfka tɣiwant n Mṛṛakc uṭṭunn g usggʷas n 2010, mas s tt inn kkan isnsa g Mṛṛakc gan uggar n 132 n usnsu zɣ usggʷas n1972, agurn ɣilad gan 96 n usnsu azayku g Mṛṛakc ɣ usggʷas n 2010.

Lliɣ tga zɣ tɣrmin mqqurnin lli ittawssan s tmallayt g tfriqt akkʷ, illa g Mṛṛakc uggar n 400 n usnsu.

‘Asnsu n tmamunt’, lli igan asnsu d dar 5 titratin ɣ (art diku), ittbna ɣ usggʷas n 1925 ɣ ifassn n ‘hinri brust’ d ‘antwan maṛkiẓyu’, ig usunsu ad walli d dar bahra addur g tɣrmt ittawssan bahra. isnnubga usnsu ad s kigan n udmawn bahra ittawssan g umaḍal, zɣ gisn winstun tcrcl d tcaṛlz agldun n wilz d mik jagṛ. imyar tcrcl a isunfu ɣ ugnsu n turtatin n usnsu ar gisn iṛccm tiflt n ikʷlan. smaynun asnsu ad lli ɣ llant 231 n tmṣṛay, lliɣ illa lkaẓinu, g usggʷas n 1986, smaynunt tiklit yaḍnin g usggʷas n 2007 ɣ ufassn n tmumka ufṛanṣi jak gaṛsiya.

Ilin isnsa yaḍnin imqqurn zun d asnsu ɛadan andalu, d usnsu n Mṛṛakc, d sufitil n Mṛṛakc, d usnsu rwayyal miṛaj, d usnsu n bisina dil, g usggʷas n 2020 kcmn d isnsa n ṛutana lmɣrib s tmnhla n isnsa s kṛaḍ n miṛay ittawssann lli ilan smmus itran. g maṛṣ 2012, tnnuṛẓm akuṛ asnsu dars izwarn lli yusin tamatart n bulman n tsbbabt ɣ Mṛṛakc, asnsu d spa bulman Mṛṛakc g lmiṛay. illa usnsu ad g yat turtit n uzmmur s tsna n 17 n hiktaṛ ɣ la bilmiṛi, ili gis 252 n tmṣṛit d 16 n wammas n imnɣaṛ d sḍiṣ n tsiram d yat tdala n tsmuni lli mi tla tsna nns 535 n mitru amkkuẓ.[8]

Timatarin n tɣrma

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Gant tmatarin n tɣrma lli d ifl umzruy a illi ifkan aẓnẓṛ n Mṛṛakc g umaḍal akkʷ a lliɣ tga yat tɣrmt n tmallayt, ar d ttackan kigan n imallayn zɣ tmizar n umaḍal bac ad ẓṛn timatarin n umzruy lli sul isuln bddnt ɣ Mṛṛakc gnt inigi n uzmz ann, iɣ nsawl f tmatarin ad iqqand a nsawl f usays n jamɛ lfna nsawl awd f tmzgida lkutubiya d tssumɛit nns awd nsawl f iɣrman lli iggudin ɣ Mṛṛakc d ṛyaḍat d tgʷmma tizaykutin…(ɣr amgrad ad ttawbdarnt gis tmatarin ad tiɣrmawin).

Tiniḍi

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Tiniḍi n tadbbaɣt n ilm ɣ mṛṛakc

Tga tniḍi tazaykut zɣ twuriwin d tmyurin lli d ifl umzruy i middn ɣ lmɣrib, kigan n twuriwin ad tizaykutin ar tnt inn nttafa ɣ tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc tazaykut (taqburt) izdi mayan d lliɣ ran imzdaɣ z izwar tiɣawsiwin ann, zun d tanjjaṛt d tagnnayt d uẓṭṭa d taṭṛṛaẓt d tadrrazt d wanuḍ n uzzal, d tniḍi n zllij amɣribi d ifckan n idqqi, d tazwwaqt n ukccuḍ d lgabṣ d kigan n twuriwin yaḍn.

Tskr tnbaḍt yan wammas niɣ tamṣṛit n usmuttg n tniḍi n tsga n Mṛṛakc asfi akkʷ, illa wammas ad imlal i tmzgiga n lkutubiya d usays n ljamɛ lfna.[9]

Timatarin timzray

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Gant tmatarin n tɣrma lli d ifl umzruy a illi ifkan aẓnẓṛ n Mṛṛakc g umaḍal akkʷ a lliɣ tga yat tɣrmt n tmallayt tgn assaɣ nns g umzruy s tiddas ggutn, ar d ttackan kigan n imallayn zɣ tmizar n umaḍal bac ad ẓṛn timatarin n umzruy lli sul isuln bddn t ɣ Mṛṛakc gnt inigi n uzmz ann.

Asays n Jamɛ Lfna

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Imgradn lli sis iẓlin : Jamɛ Lfna
Asays n Jamɛ Lfna

Iga usays n jamɛ lfna yan usarag amagdud n urarn d taḍṣa d tffugliwin n imzdaɣ awd imallayn g tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc g lmṛṛuk, ig usays ad ul n tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc, ikk tt iin ig sul adɣar izdin ngr tɣrmt d lqṣbt n lmxzn d umllaḥ, ig amsnzl n imzwag d imallayn zɣ kra iga tt adɣar g lmṛṛuk awd zɣ bṛṛa nns, bac ad ẓṛn asfsr n urarn n iɛisawiyn d ad sɣdn i tullisin zɣ imawn n wid tallsnin i taddminin, ssfldn i uẓawan n idbab n umarg ẓṛn iḥwacn d kigan n udmawn n tẓuṛi d tussna ggutn illan g tmurt n lmṛṛuk, lliɣ isman usays ad udmawn ad n tẓuṛi d tussna iggutn tẓli tt lyunisku tg tt d wayda d tingmi n tfganit, tull alɣu nns f mayan asggʷas n 2001[10].

Amzruy n usays

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Tawlaft n ugrrab ssi Saɛid d umddakkʷl nns Muḥmmad


Izdi umzruy n usays n jamɛ lfna d tasut lliɣ ttbna tmdint n Mṛṛakc g lmṛṛuk asggʷas n (1071-1070), ittbna usays n ‘jamɛ lfna’ g tasut n tnbaḍt tamṛabṭit tasut tis smmus t tahijrit tg yat tuwẓut n tsbbabt macc addur nns iɣli s kigan lliɣ ttbna tmzgida n lkutubiya lliɣ yumẓ umzruy ann tasut akkʷ. skrn igldan yaḍn lli d yuckan tizi ann ḍaṛat nnsn ɣ usays ad asbdad n isardasn nnsn, d ar zɣ gis thyyan ikabaṛn n isardasn nnsn iɣ rad ddun s kra n imnɣi, imnɣan lli skarn bac ad smann tiɣrmawin yaḍn d tmizar lli asn yaẓn bac ad tnt gn ddaw n tnbaḍt nnsn, zɣ tizi yan iga usays ad tamatart icnan n tɣrmt, tla sis tmurt akkʷ addur, tɣudu dar maṛṛa inmmudda lli gis izrin.[11]

Aẓuṛ n yism

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Aẓawan n tgnawit g usays n Jamɛ Lfna
Iwiz iɣudan n tgnawit g usays n Jamɛ Lfna ɣ tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc

Illa ma izdin assaɣ ad n jamɛ lfna d ixʷrban n usays n iɣrm n uẓṛu amṛabṭi lli as imlaln, asays n iɣrm lli n ufan ddaw ixʷrban n tmzgida n lkutubiya.

Tawalt n ‘lfna’ lli mi d ikka unamk nns is irwas zɣ tawalt illan g tutlayt taɛṛabt (الدمار- الخراب ), mayad illa inigi nns g tugga lli fkan idbab n umzruy lliɣ nn ufan yat tmzgida tamqrant ixxurban g tuẓẓumt n usays n jamɛ lfna, lli igan ḍaṛat n mayan asays bahra ittawssann g umaḍal.

Ittawbdar ɣ udlis n ‘amzruy n ssudan’ igan win ɛbdṛṛḥman iwis n ɛbdllah asɛdi atambukti (1655-1596) lliɣ isawl f tmaḍunt n ṭṭaɛun lli yutn Mṛṛakc g tasut n ugllid ḥmad lmnṣuṛ adhbi, iklli s inna: ‘iwiɣ d inɣmisn mas ibna ugllid mulay ḥmad timzgida, ibnut s yat talɣa igan fɣnit, iga as assaɣ n tmzgida n lhna, macc timukrisin ann ur t ujjant as tt gis yawi ad s tt ikmml allig immut, idwr wassaɣ nns akud ann s wassaɣ n ‘jamɛ lfna’ ‘asufɣ bardin, 1898, tanfult 205’. macc ur nssn awal ad is isawl f tmzgida lli illan ɣilad niɣ talli ixxurban[12].

Imik f usays

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Tawlaft n usays n Jamɛ Lfna ɣ yiḍ ɣ tmdint n Mṛṛakc

Iga usays ad ul n tmdint n Mṛṛakc, iga usays ad asays n inmuqqarn d urarn, ilin gis wid ittallsn i tullisin n zik, d ihyyaḍn, d imarirn ttḥucnin d wid ismurign, d willi itturarn s imudar d wid ittnqacn s lḥnna.

Tifalkayin n wayda amiwan d tingmi war tanga n tfganit:

tawlaft n umurar s ibnkaln lli ittawssan s wassaɣ n ‘uɛisawi’ g usays n jam3 lfna.

G usggʷas n 1997, gan inn tiggʷas kigan n idbab n tussna imṛṛukiyn d lyunisku ɣ yan udwal g Mṛṛakc sawl gis bac ad srsn iwutta n urmmus n ‘wayda amiwan d tingmi war tanga n tfganit’. g udwal ann bḍan ngr twwuriwin n tingmi lli d iqqan uḥṭṭu mln atig nns, g ddaw n uzwl n (tifalkayin n wayda amiwan d tingmi war tanga n tfganit). g usggʷas n 2001 iffɣ d ulɣu n lyunisku amzwaru ibdrn talgamt izwarn n tingmi lli smnidn t tmizar i lyunisku. s ɣilad kra iga tt sin isggʷasn ar tt ili tlgamt yaḍn. d iqqan d a tg tingmi lli smnidn t tmizar kra n tussna iddrn niɣ tad ir a inɣubu, ittawskar fllas uɣawas zɣ dar tnbaḍin ann f uḥṭṭu nnsn t d usɣudu nnsn t. ɣ usggʷas n 2003 umẓnt tmura igan timslay g lyunisku yat tmqqunt n uḥṭṭu d usɣudu n wayda d tingmi tamiwant war tanga n tfganit, tamqqunt ad lli illan ddaw n twuri zɣ wayyur n bril g 2006. ttawfkan inmmaln i tmggit n tmqqunt ad zɣ dar tgrawt tamaḍlant tanbaḍt, ẓlin ngr snat tlgamin yat ɣ llan wayda ismydan d tayyaḍ g llan wayda f d iqqan uḥṭṭu d usɣudu f illa uɣawl. ig mayan taɣarast lli ikkan ngr unɣubu d tingmi[13].

Tiwlafin n usays n Jamɛ Lfna

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Isuyas yaḍnin

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Isuyas yaḍn lli illan ɣ Mṛṛakc: lmicwaṛ, lmṣlla, asays n imi n tadkkʷalt, d usays n caṛl du fuku, d usays n tlelli, asays n 16 nuwanbir, asays n fir blantiṛ, d usays n ssi ḥmad lkaml, asays n yusf iwis n tacfin, asays imṛabṭin, asays n bir anzaran.

Igadazn

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Agadaz n ṛṛḥbt taqdimt ɣ mṛṛakc

Mṛṛakc dars yan ugadaz azayku lli bahra imqqurn g lmɣrib (lmṛṛuk) tiɣrmt n Mṛṛakc tla tawlaft nns ifulkin bahra ɣar s ugadaz nns amqqran lli yutn s iẓuṛan nns g umzruy n tɣrmt. inna ‘bul sulifan’ f igadazn n Mṛṛakc mas gan yan udɣar lli d izwarn dar imzdaɣ d imallayn ad tẓrn :( aqṣṛi n tammnt lli igan iswak izdin ngr mmnzrin ngr asn, tasga yad lli igan kra iẓlin ɣ tɣrmt tazaykut n Mṛṛakc iga s ixf nns tiɣrmt mẓẓiyn, iman gis yan uṭṭun iggudin n lkyuṣkat d tḥuna n tsbbabt, mẓẓiyn t zdin t gr asn t krin t gnt zun d inziggn n ɛala ddin lli bahra yuman s tugt n tzuzaf ismriqqiyn iɣ nn disn tkcm t.)  

G umzruy kkan tt inn igadazn ad bḍan f wammasn iẓlin s uzznzi n tsbbabt istin zun d azznz n ilm, d uẓṭṭa, d izuɣar d idqqi. illa sul ukan ubṭṭu ngr wammasn ad macc s yat tɣarast tamaynut ur igin zun d talli s tt inn tkka, tkcm nn gis awd tsbbabt n tɣawsiwin timaynutin. kigan n igadazn n Mṛṛakc ar gisn inzza uẓṭṭa d tmlsa tmaslmt taqburt, d wacckaṛn n ilm, d usufa. ar ukan sul ttawan middn ɣ igadazn ad f watig n tɣawsiwin ad.

Tadaliwin n ugadaz n Mṛṛakc:
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Agdz n Ismmaṛn: ig ugadaz lli imɣarn g tɣrmt walli ilan assaɣ n (agdz n ismmaṛn), lliɣ a tnzza tawqqant, ṣṣnaḍl, d idukan ilan tizuzaf iṭṭfn ikʷlan icnan, d imsggiwrn n ilm, d tzuzaf n urɣ d uẓṛf, d tmlsa iẓlin s tffugliwin.

Agdz n Ubluḥ: llan g ugdz n ubluḥ kra n lkyuṣkat lli iẓlin s uẓmma n litcin, d ififl iḥṛṛan (tahrist), lkabaṛ, d igumma ittawsyyaṛn, azmmur adal d uzggʷaɣ d usggan, d liqamt, ig adɣar n watay ittmunan d iẓmmatn imɣribin.

Agdz n Kcaca: iẓli ugadaz ad s uzznz n igumma lli izwan, d lfakit, zund tiyni, d tazart, d waqqayn n tswik, d lluz, d lkaju, d lmcmac.

Agdz n Ṛṛḥbt azayku: lli iẓlin s tsbbabt n isknan ittẓḍan s ufus, d tujjutin, d ṭṭṛabc ittawskarn s ufus, d tmlsa yaḍn zun d liẓaṛat, d ljinsing, d ilm n igwana.

Ilin igadazn yaḍn zund agadaz n isyyaɣn iẓlin s tzuzaf, d ugdz n smata ittawssann tiram n uɣlal (lbabbuc) d uzznz n iɣuda. ili ugdz n icṛṛaṭn lli g llan imassn n ilm, d ugdz n blɛarf ar gis nzzan t tɣawsiwin ad timaynutin lli ttnawaln middn ɣilad. d ugdz n id bab n uzzal lliɣ llan imassn n uzzal d isufa n uzzal (lfnaṛ).

Ili ɣ gr igadazn ad ammas n tiniḍi lli f tbdd tnbaḍt, ili g wammas ad tiwuriwin n tẓuṛi timẓẓan d tiniḍi d tɣawsiwin n ilm zun d aẓṭṭa aqbur d tmẓẓilla n tmzgadiwin. ar gis ttlmadn awd imlmadn iḥudrin f ifassn n trubba n idbab n tiniḍi inmɣurn.

Igudar d imawn

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Igudar n mṛṛakc

Ttbnan igudar n Mṛṛakc, lli yumẓ astum n 19 id kilumitr issutln f Mṛṛakc, g tasut n tgldit n imṛabṭin g tasut tis snat d mraw bac ad gn tiɣrmt g uḥṭṭu n iɣwwaɣn d ittkkan bṛṛa n tɣrmt. ttbnan iɣʷrban s tallaɣt tazggʷaɣt talitcinit d wakal n ṭṭabaciṛ iɣusn, ɣan af tla tmdint assaɣ n ( tmdint tazggʷaɣt), tlkm tɣzi n ugadir ad 5,8 mitru iṭṭf 20 n tflut d 200 n talbrjt sutln t as.

G tasut n imuḥidn, iswuri lxlift iɛqub lmnṣuṛ allig idus uḥṭṭu f Mṛṛakc, ibnu lqṣbt lli igan tizi ann adɣar n unbḍ niɣ tiɣrmt n lmxzn, mayad illa akud ann g Mṛṛakc waha, ur illi g tmdinin n tagut tamslmt akkʷ. gan imuḥidn kigan imawn i lqṣbt ur sul gisn iɣama abla mnnaw, zɣ gisn ‘tiflut n ugnaw’ lli sul ibddn idus mnid n tssumɛit n tmzgida, nttan a igan iflu amuzr n lqṣbt n imuḥidn (lmuwaḥdin) lli iẓlin ngr iflwan akkʷ s tuskin lli imsasan ngr asnt, d ṛṛcm d tẓuṛi li dars illan. tiflwin n tadkkʷalt d tɣmat (zṛ iflu n tadkkʷalt d iflu n tɣmat).

Gan imawn n tadkkʷalt d tɣmat zɣ imawn imuzrn lli illan f iɣʷrban n tɣrmt taqburt n Mṛṛakc, illa imi n tadkkʷalt f tsga n tagut ar itt awi s tmzgida n imi n tadakkʷalt, ili imi n tɣmat g tsga taminigt n tɣrmt tazaykut lli innuṛẓmn f uɣaras lli itt awin s zzawit n ‘sidi bn ṣalḥ’.

Aylli iẓlin s imi n tadkkʷalt iga t lliɣ gis snat taccṛafin mqqurnin ikka grasn t yan usuk ar itt awi s ul n tɣrmt tazaykut, ikka d wassaɣ n imi n tadkkʷalt adɣar lli isdan i tɣrmt lliɣ tt inn tkka tizi ann zdaɣn gis imzdaɣ n tɣrmt. d tiflut n tɣmat tga yat tmawayt lli izrin g tsga taminigt n igudar n tɣrmt.

Imawn n tɣrmt

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  • Iflu n Ugnaw, yan ɣ iflwan lli bahra istawhmman n tmdint n Mrrakc
    Iflu n Ugnaw: ittawssan imi ad ɣ gr iflwan n tɣrmt, ibna t lxlift amuḥidi iɛqub lmnṣuṛ g tgara n tasut snat d mraw, iskr gis taggurt tamurzt i lqṣbt tamaynut. Agnaw iga assaɣ d yuckan zɣ tutlayt tamaziɣt, lli ilan anamk n wad ur ifrzn awal niɣ wad lli mi ur ittawssan ils nns d tutlayt nns, iɣama wassaɣ ann ar tt inin imaziɣn i yan d ikkan tafriqt tasggant, ili wassaɣ ad awd g ism n wanaw n uẓawan lli ittawssann s gnawa. sfalkin iflu ad s unuɣn d ṛṛcum n wadal. d tirra n lqṛan s tirra takufit, lli s tt inn kkan ar sis ttaran ula g landalus. smaynun iflu ad simẓiyn inzgrmitn nns g uzmz n ugllid muḥmmad iwis n ɛbdllah.[14]
  • Iflu n Salim
  • Iflu n Icariyn
  • Iflu n Lmxzn
  • Iflu n Lxmis: illa g tsga n iẓẓlmḍ taminigt n tɣrmt tazaykut, ila assaɣ nns zg wassaɣ n ugdz n lxmis lli t imlaln.
  • Iflu Amaynu
  • Iflu n Tdkkʷalt: iga yan ɣ iflwan lli bahra imqqurn macc ur iṭṭf kra n ṛṛcm niɣ kra n unuɣ, illa f tsga n iẓẓlmḍ n tagut n ugadir n tɣrmt, illa assaɣ nns zɣ tmnaḍt n tadkkʷalt lli s irur udm.
  • Iflu n Tɣmat: iga zɣ iflwan n iffus ilan atig dar tɣrmt, illa f iming n iṣmḍal n udayn d win imuslmn, imlalIflu ad i uṣmḍl n ɛli iwis n yusf.
  • Iflu n Nnqb
  • Iflu Rrḥa
  • Iflu n Lqṣbt
  • Iflu n Tbrrimt
  • Iflu n Tɣzut
  • Iflu n Iɣrazn
  • Iflu n Lftuḥ
  • Iflu n Amin u Muḥmmad Amnfuluṭi
  • Iflu n Iɣli
  • Iflu n Ṛbbi: nttan a igan ufuɣ n tɣrmt f tsga n iffus, illa imlal i iflu n ugnaw. ila yan umamk sis iẓlin lliɣ as ggrn kigan n ifassn tasutin f tasutin. ar issufuɣ s ubrid ittawin s tɣrmt n umẓmiẓ d usni llanin g udrar.
  • Iflu n Dbaɣ: illa f tsga n iming, amamk nns ikrrs iggut kigan uggar n iflwan yaḍn, illa ddaw as yan usuk ibṛṛm kigan. ili iflu n aylan f iffus imlal as.
  • Iflu n Lɛṛṣt

Urtan n tɣrmt

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Urtan n Tmnaṛt

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lmnaṛa g mṛṛakc

Amzruy n urtan n tmnaṛt n Mṛṛakc issfal zg tizi n imuḥidn, lli s tt inn ikkan tga abaraz n urumn n isardasn ɣ ucuccf n waman, sfalkin tt s waddagn n uzmmur llig tssfal tizi n tasut tis 12.

Llan urtan n tmnaṛt f tmyaggugt n ma ittggan 3 id kilumitr iffɣn i igudar n tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc. iɣ tlla tnnuṛẓmt n imalass ar tddun kigan n imṛṛakciyn s urtan ann ad gisn mmarrin sunfun. ili ɣ tuẓẓumt n urtan ann yan umda n waman niɣ tanuḍfi n tmnaṛt mqquṛn lli iggʷzn s wallaɣ n sin id mitr ig ugaru nns 510 n id mitru. ar t id lkkmn waman zɣ targiwin d ikkan adrar n waṭlaṣ amṛwaṣu.[15]

Urtan n Majuṛil

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Urtan n majuṛil ɣ mṛṛakc

Llan urtan n majuṛil g tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc ɣ giliz. ilin assaɣ n unaẓuṛ afṛanṣi n ikʷlan lli tn ibnan (jak majuṛil) lliɣ issfal ar tt ibnnu g usggʷas n 1924. asggʷas n 1937 iḍla unaẓuṛ afṛanṣi iɣʷrban n urtan s uklu n uzzgza ismriqqiyn ig mayad tanatamt i imzdaɣ n tɣrmt tazggʷaɣt, iṭṭf uswir ad ɣ ikʷlan g tutlayt n tfṛanṣist assaɣ n azzgza n majuṛil, bac ad sis rarn aẓuṛ s urtan ad. immut majuṛil anaẓuṛ n ikʷlan afṛanṣi ɣ yan ungas lliɣ yiwrri s fṛanṣa ɣ usggʷas n 1967.

G usggʷas n 1980 isɣa bab n umamk n tmlsa amaḍlan (if san luran) nttan d umara afṛanṣi ( byir birji) urtan n majuṛil ṛẓmn i yat tsga zɣ gis middn n tmallayt. ig udɣar ad ɣilad ansa ilan atig akswat ɣ gr wansiwn akkʷ n tɣrma illan g Mṛṛakc tamallayt, ili yan ibrgmmi issutl i urtan ann idwr iga ɣilad asalay n tẓuṛi tamslmt ilin g urtan ann kra n ijjign d kra n tuga iẓlin igan fɣnit lli d ikkan timizar n ddunit, s ma iẓlin akkʷ s wanawn n uknari.

Illa g ugnsu n turtit ad yan inigi ar tmmal tmsktayin nns, d yan uslay amaziɣ lli illan g yan udɣar azzgza iḍlan. tnnuṛẓm turtit ad asggʷas n 1947.[16]

Urtan n Ugdal

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Urtan n ugdal ɣ mṛṛakc

Llan f tsga n tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc g lmɣrib. wanna tn d ikkan ar nn gisn ittafa timaḍ n waddagn n uzmmur d litcin d lmcmac d kigan n issʷkla ittarun aqqayn. urtan ad gan adɣar ɣ ittsunfu yan isyafa gisn s ufra d tzdugi, aggugn i tɣlaɣalt gn adɣar s irwwl yan zɣ tnakmut n tɣrmt d tznazzayt nns. llan g urtan ad timrawin n wanawn n waddagn ittarun aqqayn, urtan gan i tmallayt uman uggar n 500 hiktaṛ g tsna nnsn, a illi bahra isfalkin urtan ad uggar lliɣ ad sis ttackan tirubba n wanawn n igḍaḍ idrusn ɣ iggi n ddunit, imallayn n urtan ad ar smuqquln igḍaḍ ad as ssflidn i uẓawan nnsn. gan urtan ad dar umallay yat tawlaft n tẓuṛi ɣ tunf tzdugi i tɣrma n uẓṛu d uzzal, tawlaft ad ur ilin s urɣ atig.

Urti n Mulay Lḥasan

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Iga yan usnfar ikuluji illa f tsna n 17 n hiktaṛ, innuṛẓm iflwan nns ass n 8 may 2022 ilin gis kigan n tɣmriwin d wannarn d tmsal d tsiram, d yat turtit iẓlin s wanawn n tuga n uknari d waddagn n uzmmur d tayniwin d aṭṭaṣ n wanawn n ijjign, ili g urti ad yat tmsult tabanuṛamit iẓḍaṛ iẓṛi a isulf ismmaqql n urti akkʷ ar nn ttaggʷa f uzagʷz n Mṛṛakc lmnaṛa.

Urtan yaḍnin n Mṛṛakc

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Tlla turtit n lkutubiya ḍaṛat n tmzgida n lkutubiya. tuma s kigan n waddagn n litcin d tayniwin, ar gis ittimyur bllarj. d urtan n lmamun lli ikkan uggar n 100 n usggʷas, lli ilan assaɣ n ugndun mulay lmamun, gis asɣar n uzmmur d litcin, gis awd kigan n wanawn n ijjign d tuga.

Iɣrman

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Gan wayda d ifl umzruy i tɣrmt iɣrman d ṛyaḍat d ibrgʷmma imqqurn. iɣrman lli bahra ittawssann ilin addur zɣ gisn iɣrm n lbdiɛ, d tgmmi n lmxzn d iɣrm n lbahya. ṛṛyaḍ (iɣrman imɣrabin) lli bahra iggutn g lmṛṛuk. ẓlin isaragn ad s tlɣa n tska n lfilla taṛumanit, s turtit ittilin ɣ tuẓẓumt innuṛẓmn mmi ssutln iɣʷrban yattuyn. ar akkan iɣʷrban ad i imzdaɣ aḥṭṭu iggutn d uẓilal, ar tt addn i tskkʷflt n trɣi g ugnsu n ibrgmmi. zɣ ṛyaḍat lli ittawssann ɣ ugns n tɣrmt : ṛṛyaḍ n argana, d ṛṛyaḍ n ubri, d ṛṛyaḍ n iniga, d ṛṛyaḍ n umzwar, ṛṛyaḍ fṛanṣ ankun, tigmmi n musin, ṛṛyaḍ n luts, d ṛṛyaḍ n liksir, ṛṛyaḍ li buganfilyih, ṛṛyaḍ tigmmi n fnduk, tigmmi n tcrift (tagʷrramt), tigmmi n mrzutu, tigmmi n ḍḍmana, d ṛṛyaḍ banku balinu. ilin wiyyaḍ ittawssann ffuɣn adɣar n tɣrmt zun d iɣrm n car baɣ, amjana, filla n maha, tigmmi n aḥlam, tigmmi n lhnd, tigmmi n ṭida.

Iɣrm n Bahya

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Imgradn lli sis iẓlin : Iɣrm n lbahya
tawlaft n unuɣn n tẓuṛi tamzruyt tamṛṛukit, iɣrm n lbahya mṛṛakc lmṛṛuk
Tawlaft n unuɣn n tẓuṛi tamzruyt tamṛṛukit, iɣrm n lbahya Mṛṛakc lmṛṛuk

Iga Iɣrm n Bahya (s tfṛansist: Palais de la Bahia) yan g tmatarin n umzruy n tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc tamṛṛukit. Iffɣ d uslgn agldan zɣ iɣrm n ugllid n tgldit l lmṛṛuk g 21 innayr 1924, ifrs ɣ tɣmist tamaddudt, mas iga zɣ iɣrman imzruyn, lli f illa f tnbaḍt ad t tḥṭṭu ɣ ddaw n uslig d iffɣn s ḍḍahiṛ amaɣud 4 yulyuz 1922, lli iẓlin s uḥṭṭu n wayda d tingmi n tgldit n lmṛṛuk[17].

Illa Iɣrm n Bahya ɣ tmdint n Mṛṛakc, lli d ifl umzruy g uzmz n tnbaḍt taɛalawit, ig iɣrm ad win umawas ḥmad iwis n musa iwis n ḥmad asmlali, g tasut n ugllid ɛbdlɛaziz. amawas ad lli igan anbdad n tnbaḍt akkʷ tizi ann, lli ittawssann s wassaɣ n Bba ḥmad.

Bba ḥmad iwi d inmɣar n iminḍn, d imgurn lli bahra d dar atig lli ittawssann g tmazirt n lmṛṛuk s twuri nnsn d tẓuṛi nnsn ilan atig aksawt, af ad swurin g tska n iɣrm, swurin g iɣrm ṣḍiṣ isggʷasn inmḍfaṛn, macc artum isngara t d iɣrm nns urta akkʷ t iẓṛi lliɣ t tiwi tmttant g usggʷas n 1900 urta akkʷ gis tnfalal twuri. Ig iɣrm ɣil ad zɣ tmatarin n umzruy lli bahra ittawssann g tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc.

Aẓuṛ n yism

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Izdi wassaɣ n iɣrm n Bahya; s wassaɣ n tmɣart n Bba ḥmad lli ittawssann s Lalla lbahya taṛḥmanit, ig iɣrm tarzzift n tayri n Bba ḥmad i tmɣart nns Lbahya ig tamatart iddrn i tayri nns d tskkʷflt tamajgalt lli ɣ dars tlla tmɣart nns, imun ɣ iɣrm ad isyafatn n tayri d tẓuṛi d unuɣn iẓɣuṛan.

Tizuna d tdaliwin

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Ibḍa iɣrm f kigan n tuzunin d tmṣṛay d tdaliwin d tmdayin d urtan, d urzaf lli ɣ tlla yat turtit mmi tlla ɣ tuẓẓumt nns yat tfḍna lli ittussann s wassaɣ n Agʷdal n Bba ḥmad. Lliɣ immut Bba ḥmad ggʷzn g iɣrm ad kigan n inmɣuṛn zdɣn gis g usggʷas n 1906, ig yan gisn, Lmadani aglawwu gʷmas n lbaca n Mṛṛakc, thami aglawwu, ibna gis tduli tis snat, awar nns iggʷz gis Lmqrri ar asggʷas n 1912. Awar n usggʷas a, ila iɣrm yan umsasa amaynu ig iɣrm n umzdaɣ amatay afṛanṣi Lyuṭi, gn gis tiswuwwa d tmzizwa n waḍu, tg tsna nns akkʷ 22 ifḍ n mitru amkkuẓ, macc tasna nns tidras lliɣ yad gis bnan kigan n wammasn g turtit tamqrant, lli bḍan zɣ iɣrm, idwr awd imi nns aẓɣuṛan lli yadda illan g usuk n ṛṛyaḍ zzitun amaynu, immatti s yat timit imlaln i usuk n ssalam (Lmllaḥ), tagara n usuk n (ɛṛṣt lmɛac).

Ṛṛyaḍ amẓyan

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Zɣ tzuna lli innuṛẓmn i wid ranin ad ẓṛn iɣrm d imallayn, tga tt tazunt ɣ illa ṛṛyaḍ mẓẓiyn, ig uzun ad yat zɣ tzuna lli bahra ifulkin iẓlin g ugnsu n iɣrm, iẓli s taska nns irwasn tin tinmal tizaykutin, issqfan nns idln s ikccuḍ imsasan ilan ikʷlan ismriqqiyn[18].

Ig ṛṛyaḍ ad imẓẓiyn tadala n Bba ḥmad lli ɣ a isnubga inmɣuṛn n tnbaḍt, zɣ tdala ad a zɣ a sfrikn iskkinn n tmurt.

Izdɣ gis umzdaɣ amatay afṛanṣi ‘lyuṭi’ ig t d tgmmi nns d umaris nns lli mi iṛcm asarag nns s rrxam d zllij, ilin t gis kkuẓ t tfḍniwin, ku tafḍna tili g tuẓẓumt nns tadala n waman, mmuṛẓmn t fllas tmṣṛay bahra iẓiln lli idln s kigan n usɣar iṛcmn sis igan fɣnit, d tili yat tsayst mẓẓiyn lliɣ tlla yat tala n rrxam, tg zɣ idɣarn lli iẓlin s Bba ḥmad asarag n usays ad iṛcm s rrxam d zllij imsasan ngr asn, issutl i tala ad kkuẓ imṣṛay imqquṛn f illa ɣ imawn nnsn taskiwin lliɣ skrn isardasn ifṛanṣin imiras nnsn. d tili yat tasayst illan f iming niɣ lli mi tt inin tasayst n rrxam mqquṛn, lli igan yan usays mqquṛn yugrn asarag n iɣrm, ssutln as issqfan lli ibdd f 52 n tsirit n ukccuḍ, ig wakal nns rrxam, ilin t gis kṛaḍt n tala, yat gisn tlla ɣ yat tfḍna mẓẓiyn, adɣar ikka tt inn iga win tffugliwin d isfras n tẓuṛi, mmuṛẓmnt fllas kigan n tdaliwin ilan timawayin iṭṭfn isksal n uzzal. tg tdala illan f ugafay, tadala lli bahra imqquṛn g iɣrm, iɣʷrban nns lsan zllij s uzgn, timawayin nns nnuṛẓmn t f turtit tandalusit lliɣ bdda tlla tzzgzut, ilin t f iggi n tmawayin nns tisutam n lgabṣ g llan t tnutulin n tafukt, d tduli g llan isutar iṛcmn s unuɣn igan anaw n ṭṭalyan, tg tdala ad tuska lli igan tamaynut g iɣrm, iklli ittyuran f yat tifilt illan f iggi n yan uɣʷrab iwalan i usggʷas n 1899.

Zɣ tasayst taminigt, ar nn tkccmt f ṛṛyaḍ mqquṛn zɣ yan uɣʷdmmi iṛcmn s unuɣn imṛṛukin, ṛṛyaḍ ad lli ittusnfln kigan n tikkal g uzmz n ‘bba ḥmad’, ɣ tdala tamqqrant taminigt llan kra n izlan n umdyaz iṛcmn f lgabṣ ar tsawal f umzruy lli izrin f tska n iɣrm.

D ula tadala n illan f iffus n iɣrm dwrn t gis kigan n tmatarin lli tmmal talɣa n tduliwin d unuɣn d ṛṛcum, ili f tsga n tdala ad adɣar g tlla tmɣart n ‘ bba ḥmad’, ig udɣar ad yan uqṣṛi idln s ukccuḍ ilin t gis snat tmṣṛay d sin isaragn.

Ig iɣrm ‘lbahya’ yat tmuzunt ifulkin d iɣaman ɣ umzruy amṛṛuki lli nn bahra ur nn yaggugn, iẓli s iflwan nns izaykutn iṛcmn, d tmawayin nns d isskʷla nns d wadal gis imɣin lli ittawssann s ‘asmɣi’.

Adɣar n tmallayt

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Tasnawayt n Iɣrm Bahya mas iga yat tmatart n umzruy amṛṛuki g usggʷas n 1922 lli f ad ttackan imallayn zɣ ugʷns n tmurt tamṛṛukit awd imallayn n umaḍal, af ad ẓṛn taẓuṛi taqburt tamzruyt yutn s iẓuṛan ɣ tussna d umzruy amṛṛuki, d aylli akkʷ gis iẓlin g iɣrm ad ɣ tẓuṛi tga tt unuɣn lli s ṛcmn ikccuḍn n tduli.

Amnzag issfaln taska n iɣrm
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illa f tska n iɣrm ad amnzag ‘muḥmmad iwis n lmkki amssiwi’, lli ilmdn taẓuṛi n ṛṛcm ɣ ukccuḍ g tɣrmt n mknas, ilmd gis awd taẓuṛi n unuɣn n lgabṣ g tɣrmt n fas, tizi n usardas anbdad afṛanṣi (arkman) lli igan aslway n ukabaṛ afṛanṣi urta illi ufrag, macc walli issfaln taska tamzwarut n ‘iɣrm n lbahya’ iga t ufus n lḥajb agldan ‘musa iwis n ḥmad lbuxari’, nttan ad isbddn iɣʷrban n ṛṛyaḍ amqran d tsayst tagafayt n iɣrm is izwar, a illiɣ tbdd twuri g tsga ad n iɣrm asggʷas n 1886, awar n tmttant nns, issfal iwis lli ilan assaɣ n Bba ḥmad ad ismd taska n iɣrm, ismun tizi ann ɣ umzwaru uggar n 60 n tgmmi af ad gnt iɣrm amqran[19].

ig ɣilad ‘iɣrm n lbahya’, yat tmuzunt tafalkayt ɣ tẓuṛi d umzruy amṛṛuki g tagara n tasut n tẓa d mraw.

Tiwlafin

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Iɣrm n Lbdiɛ

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Iɣrm n Lbdiɛ
Iɣrm n Lbdiɛ

Iga iɣrm n lbdiɛ zɣ wayda lli d ifl ugllid asɛdi ḥmad lmnṣur adhbi asggʷas n 1578, imsasa wakud ann d uzmz lliɣ inra lmɣrib isardasn ibrtqqizin ɣ tmnɣit n wasif n lmxazn niɣ imnɣi n kṛaḍ igldan. ittbna iɣrm ad bac ad sis ili ugllid addur iggutn dar inbgiyn nns,iklli bdrn warratn n umzruy mas d yiwi ugllid imnzag d inmɣurn n tmiḍi imɣribin d ibṛṛaniyn, illa zɣ wida yuran amzruy aqbur ma igan iɣrm ad zɣ irgamn n ddunit.

igudar n Iɣrm n Lbdiɛ

Tkka tska n iɣrm ad uggar n 50 n usggʷas, ittbna s idrimn lli fran inmɣurn ibrtqqizin lliɣ ttyamaẓn, d idrimn n tmsaɣt n uɣanim n tamimt (skkaṛ), d idrimn n ibrdan n tsbbabt g tnzruft lli ikkusa ugllid ad ɣ uzmz nns, isɣad tizi ann rrxam n kirara zɣ ṭṭalyan k kra n tɣawsiwin yaḍn d ikkan fṛanṣa d sbanya d lhnd. llan sin wammasn imqqurn lli ibḍa yan uɣdmmi iɣzzifn ittawin s yan usarag bahra yuman, amamk nns iga anaw n umamk n uẓkka andalusi amṛṛuki azayku, zund mayan illa g usarag n izmawn imẓyann g iɣrm azggʷaɣ. lliɣ tnɣuba tnbaḍt n isɛdin g tasut n kkuẓt d mraw, ur illi uḥṭṭu f iɣrm ann, ttyakarnt zɣ gis kigan n tɣawsiwn ilan atig s wanaḍ n ugllid aɛalawi mulay smaɛil zund rrxam lli gis illan ilan atig. ixʷrban n iɣrm ass ad ɣaman gan tamatart n umzruy ar tid tkkan imallayn, ar gis sffuglan anmuggar n tẓuṛi tanamurt kra iga tt imir n tfsut.

Illa iɣrm n lbdiɛ f tsga taẓlmaḍt taminigt n lqṣbt, iẓli umamk n tmatart ad taɣrmant s usmbḍi n igʷmma d wammasn f usarag unziɣ. ili ɣ tuẓẓumt n usarag ad yat tnuḍfi tamqqrant ilan ɣ tɣzi 90 id mitr g turrut nns 20 id mitr d kkuẓt tnuḍfay yaḍn yunfn f tsga kkan t kkuẓt turtatin grasn t. aylli bahra s iẓli iɣrm n lbdiɛ iga t tugtt n unuɣn d kigan n tmttayin lli s ittbna zund ṛṛxam d ttijan d isaratn idln s tnfulin n urɣ d zllij s kra iga tt aklu d ukccuḍ iṛcmn s iɣʷman d lgabṣ. macc tamatart ad taɣrmant iggr as ufus txxurba asggʷas n 1696 lliɣ zɣ gis yusi mulay smaɛil a illi gis ifulkin n unuɣn bac ad sis isfalki amnru nns amaynu n tnbaḍt nns tamdint n mknas.

Taqubbit tamṛabṭit

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Taqubbit tamṛabṭit

Tga inigi lli sul isuln g Mṛṛakc lli isulfn taẓuṛi n tẓkka tamṛabṭit. tlla tqubbanit tamṛabṭit g tsga tafasit n usarag n iwis n yusf ɣ tɣrmt tazaykut. ufanin imrzutn lli icnubbcn ɣ ugns n tɣrmt n zɣ usggʷas n 1948 kra n tsurin iẓlin s tɣrma n imṛabṭin g Mṛṛakc ar mmaln t mas tt inn ikka g udɣar ann cnubbcn ammas n tmzgida iḍfaṛn i tmzgida n ɛli iwis n yusf lli xʷlan imuwaḥḥidin(imuḥidn) tizi lliɣ kkusan tiɣrmt asggʷas n 1130. ig inigi f tannayt ad yat tuṛcimt ur bahra tli tifras lli illan f ixf n tqubbit, imrzutn nnan mas iga wassaɣ gis iṛcmn assaɣ n ugllid ɛli iwis n yusf.

Tẓli tqubbanit s umamk lli tla, fkan as willi s tt ibnan yat tlɣa tunziɣt, tudmawin n bṛṛa n tqubbit lan ṛṛcum igan tiskt d talɣiwin irwasn titrit ilan sa ixfawn, ifalki ugnsu n tqubbit f tsga n iwalan iẓẓlmḍ d iffus nns snat tskin msasanin immrwasn g talɣa tisilt n wayyis, g tsga n iẓẓlmḍ d iming falkin s snat tskin ibbin.

Taqʷbbanit tamṛabṭit tga ɣilad yan udɣar n luḍu lli ibḍan f snat tdaliwin ttyafa asggʷas n 1948 ɣ yat tsga idrn zɣ udɣar g tlla tmzgida. tga amamk bahra ilan aswir nns, tg tamatart n umzruy n uẓkka n lmɣrib.[20]

Iɣrm n Lmxzn (Tigmmi n Lmxzn)

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Illa iɣrm n lmxzn g Mṛṛakc, lli ittawssann s tgmmi n lmxzn, g tsga tafasit n tɣrmt, yumẓ adɣar ggutn zɣ tsga taminigt n usuk n lqṣbt n ɣilad. imuḥidn bnan amun n iɣrman g udɣar ad amzwaru g tasut n sin d mraw, ig mayan agzzum zɣ lqṣbt nnsn tamaynut, macc ullsn i tska nns kullut g tasut n isɛdin tasut nsḍis d mraw g ḍaṛat nsn snfln gis iɛalawin kra tasut n sa d mraw. talɣa ad lli ila ɣilad ifl as t id ugllid muḥmmad iwis n ɛbdllah tasut n ttam d mraw. ass ad illa iɣrm aɛalawi iṭṭf kigan n turtatin d isaragn imqqurn mmi ssutlnt tmṣṛay. imi nns amqqran n iɣrm illa ass ad f iffus, ar tid ilkkm yan iɣ izri ɣ kigan n iswak d imawn. isnuml yan unrzuf tamṣṛit n tnnubga mas tt inn tkka tuma s kigan n isuma d wattagn igan anaw n (grand concourse – repro victorian) lli f imnuḍant tdumkal n urɣ d tumlilin. s ɣilad iga ukan sul iɣrm ad iɣrm n ugllid n lmɣrib ur innuṛẓm i ku yan.

Iɣrman yaḍnin

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Iḥḍa umzruy i Mṛṛakc kigan n iɣrman yaḍnin, lli bnan inmɣurn d id bab n udrim, d ayt tsrtit g tasut tis tẓa d mraw ar amzwaru n tasut simraw. kigan zɣ gisn idwr iga asalay ass ad. zund tigmmi n lmnbhi (ɣilad asalay n Mṛṛakc) d tgmmi n ssi sɛid d tgmmi n lbaca, tili tgmmi n mulay ɛli, awd tigmmi n tqunṣulit tafṛanṣist.

Tigʷmma tinamurin tizaukutin d ṛṛyaḍ

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tigmmi n tccrift

Tigʷmma tinamurin tizaukutin

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Tigʷmma timɣribin ar tnt bahra sfalkayn id bab nnsnt zɣ ugns, bac ad tẓli s tawja tg aḥṭṭu zɣ izmaz n unzwi. ɣ ugns n tgmmi ar tt ili turtit ɣ tuẓẓumt n usarag, d ur bahra tt ili tgmmi tamawayin d asṛẓm s bṛṛa n tgmmi, ar bnnun middn iɣʷrban s lyajuṛ n wakal inɣdn ikkʷmn. amamk ad n tska imsasa d tmyurin n middn d tussna nnsn lli yusin kigan zɣ usgd n tmuslmt, lli ifkan atig iggutn bac ad yili uẓilal ngr idɣarn ɣ tgmmi lli igan win tawja d udɣar lli igan win tnnubga. ar sfalkayn middn tgʷmma nnsn s uniɣn n zllij d lgabṣ, d tirra n tɛṛabt. kigan n tgʷmma timɣribin falkint s ununɣn ann sul s ɣilad. ig wanaw ad n tska ayda d ifl umzruy i imzdaɣ. zɣ uzmz n isɛdin ad llant tmatarin timzwura ɣ umzruy n wanaw ad n tska. zun d ( tigmmi n tcrift tagʷrramt lli s tt inn ikkan ttawssan s tgmmi ijimi, d tgmmi n lmsɛudin, d tgmmi n lmuṣliḥin lli ittawssann s iɣrman n ugafay). iṭṭf awd usalay n lmuwasin f ‘’taddwarit’’ lli d ifl uzmz n isɛdin, niɣ tamṣṛit n inbgiwn lli as tt inin.

agnsu n ṛṛyaḍ g mṛṛakc

Ṛṛyaḍ

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Tawalt n ṛṛyaḍ tga assaɣ n yan wanaw n urtan ittilin g ugnsu n taddrwin, tid igan timkkuẓin ɣ tasgiwin nns, ar ittili tala n waman ɣ mnid nns. turtatin ad n ugnsu n tgʷmma d iɣrman iga yan wanaw illan g umaḍal amslm, acku aman d wadal tzdi tawlaft nnsn d lfirdaws (ljnt) g lislam. anaw ad n turtatin illa iga azayku, amdya amzwaru lli ittawssann illa g turtit ɣ lmɣrib g yan iɣrm n amṛabṭi lli ibna ɛli bn yusf g Mṛṛakc g tasut tis snat d mraw. zɣ akud ann a illa umamk ann g Mṛṛakc akkʷ, isman umamk ad n ṛṛyaḍ ngr tasna yuman d wadal d tuga lli yakkan azuzwu, ɣan af immatti umamk ad s iɣrman n inmɣar lli ittbnan ɣ tmdint n Mṛṛakc, immatti awd s tasgiwin nns. ig waddag n litcin niɣ win llimun addag lli ittilin g turtatin ad n ṛṛyaḍ.

g tagara ad izdi wassaɣ n ṛṛyaḍ d tgʷmma n lmɣrib akkʷ, illa mad akkʷ iskrn ɣ tgmmi nns asnsu niɣ asalay ɣ uzmz ad ɣ tga Mṛṛakc tamdint n tmallayt tamaḍlant.

Timzgadiwin d tigʷmma n usgd

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Timzgadiwin

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Uṭṭun n timzgadiwin ɣ Mṛṛakc iga uggar n 244 n tmzgida zɣ gisnt :

Timzgida n Kutubiya

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Imgradn lli sis iẓlin : Timzgida n Kutubiya
Tawlaft n tssumɛit n tmzgida n lkutubiya g iḍ.
Amzruy
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Tga tmzgida n lkutubiya (s tutlayt n tɛṛabt: جامع الكتبية المراكشي ) zɣ tmatarin n tɣrma n lmṛṛuk lli izrin g umzruy amuslm, tili tmzgida ad g ul n tmdint n Mṛṛakc tɣama nttat sul tga tinigit f waddur amajgal lli g tlla tɣrma n lmṛṛuk tizi ann ngr tɣrma n tmizar n umaḍal. tɣama sul nttat tddr mqqar kulu afuḍn t tnbaḍin d tgldan lli s tt idd yufan, ig wakal ann f tlla tmzgida tamnaḍt igan tagʷrramt, tṭṭf atig akswat gr wayda n umzruy n tmurt n lmṛṛuk (tamɣribit).[21]

Timzgida n lkutubiya tamṛṛakcit, tga zɣ yat tmatart ngr tmatarin iggutn lli d ifl umzruy i tmurt nnɣ tamɣribit (amzruy amuslm), tlla tmzgida lkutubiya g tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc tmlal i usays amqqran lli ilan assaɣ n (asays n jamɛ lfna).

Tṭṭf tmzgida kigan amzruy bahra yutn s iẓuṛan g tasutin izrin n umzruy f lmṛṛuk, kigan n tɣrmawin fllas izrin iɣama iga inigi f umzruy ann azayku. tmzgida lkutubiya ibna tt (lxlift ɛbd lmumn iwis n ɛli agummi) g usggʷas n 1147, f ixʷrban lli d iɣaman n iɣrm n uẓṛu amṛabṭi, lli mi nn ufan imrzutn arkyulujiyin tifras nns d tmatarin n iɣʷrban nns.

Macc timzgida tis snat bnan tt g usggʷas n 1158, tizi lli bnan tassumɛit n ḥssan g ṛṛbaṭ d lxiralda tacblit g landalus, ig mayan yat tzdayt taɣrmant n tẓuṛi ngr lmṛṛuk d landalus g tasut ann, trwas tmzgida ad tis snat g uksay nns timzgida lli izwarn, tmsasa tmzgida ad s tdala nns tunziɣt ɣ talɣa nns, tsman 17 n usqqif lli iswalan inzgrmitn nns i tsga lqblt, issqfan ad usintn tsaratin f llant uskuwn imsasan ngr asn d isnan iẓlin iɣ tn nẓṛa ar aɣ d sktayn s tmzgida n lqarawiyin illan g tɣrmt n fas. idl usqqif s smmus t lqbbat lli igan tamatart n uẓkka tasgdant n imuḥidn (lmuwaḥidin), taɣrma ad lli ddar kigan n iḍiṣ f tsga n tagut tamslmt.[2]

Inna bab n udlis ittyuran s tutlayt taɛṛabt (الحلل الموشية في ذكر الأخبار المراكشية): ‘’ ibna ɛbd lmumn g tgmmi n uẓṛu yat tmzgida yaḍnin, tg tmzgida ɣ tlla tẓallit n ljamɛ, issfal ar ibnnu timzgida tamqrant tanamunt, ixlu timzgida taqburt lli illan g izddar n tɣrmt lli ibna (ɛli iwis n yusf).[22]

Asnuml

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Tga tmzgida n lkutubiya, yat tmzgida lli ilan addur g tgldit n lmṛṛuk akkʷ. tṭṭf yan umnid amqran igan fɣnit ɣ umzruy amṛṛuki, tuma tasna 5300 n mitru amkkuẓ, ili gis 17 n usqqif d 11 lqubbt iṛcmn s unuɣn, gis aɣ ffaɣn iɣtasn n tnbaḍt tamajgalt zrin kigan kigan n imsarn imzruyn. timzgida d tassumɛit nns ṛcmn s unuɣn d tkla zɣ tsgiwin nns tanafllatin s lqrmud n idqqi iḍlan s uklu wadal ismriqqiyn lli igan azmz ann tamatart n tska n tnbaḍt g tɣrmt. d lmnbṛ n tmzgida amaddur lli ittmussun s tɣarast n wammak lli ismnidn taẓuṛi tamṛṛukit n ukccuḍ. lmnbṛ ad iga tamguri n quṛtuba g umzwaru n tasut 12 s wanaḍ n ugllid amṛabṭi ɛli iwis n yusf iwis n tacfin lli ikmml taska n tmzgida g Mṛṛakc tizi ann. smattin lmnbṛ s lkutubiya tanila n usggʷas n 1150.[23]

tassumɛit n lkutubiya

Tassumɛit

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Tlla tssumɛit s wanaḍ n lxlift amuḥid ɛbd lmumn iwis n ɛli agummi (1130-1163) ikml tt iwis lmnṣuṛ (1199-1184). tlla tssumɛit ad g tsga tafusit - tamnagt n tmzgida tg tska nns talɣa n umkkuẓ f illa usafu isnan s taqubbit taɣʷmmart. iswirn n tssumɛit lan tamawayin(taccrafin). agnsu n tssumɛit gis sḍis t tmṣṛay(tzuniwin) immrwasn yat f iggi n yat, mmi issutln isskkʷfal imuɣad idln s uzgn n tqubbatin fllas ibṛṛmn, kra n tqubbatin ann zdint d tiwẓa nns illa ixf imsadn.

Ttbna tmatart ad tamzruyt s tmlalt n iẓṛan iɣusn lli d iwin zɣ udrar n ugliz g Mṛṛakc. d bac ad ssifsasn taẓayt f tssumɛit, gan as talyajurin timẓyanin g tsgiwin nns tanafllatin. imun g uska ad uẓṛu d ujuṛ, iḍlan s izwar s tgbbaṣt. ṛcmn aɣʷrab nns s ikṛṛajn bac ad ntln s mayan tazdayin n iẓṛan d lyajuṛ d illi ittubbayn iẓṛan(s ɣilad llant ukan sul tmatarin n mayan g uɣʷrab gant inagan).

Gan unuɣn n tssumɛit smmus wanawn ganin iswirn. llan g kul tasgiwin n tssumɛit gn fllas iɣuda g llan iknunnayn inmalan imḥadan mmi ggutn igʷzman. g ugʷnsu n iɣuda ad yuma s unuɣn d ṛṛcum ilan ikʷlan izggʷaɣn gn ṛṛcum ad asmdya n imɣi, d ṛṛcum imnzagn d tirra(ṛṛcum ann rwasn talɣiwin n ifrawn n wayniwn d ijjign, d tirra takufit).

Ṛṛcum igguran lli illan f uflla n tssumɛit d usafu nns, gan imnzag immrwin ngr imkkuẓn n idqqi umliln d wadaln ihwan s uzzgza, ig mayan mad bahra iẓiln g tmatart ad tamzruyt.[24]

Ṛṛcum n tssumɛit ftan rwasn i wanawn n ṛṛcum llanin g tssumɛit n lxiralda tacblit niɣ tassumɛit n ḥssan g tɣrmt n ṛṛbaṭ, irwas ẓlin anaw ann zɣ tssumɛit n Mṛṛakc gn tt i tssumɛit ɛbd ṛṛḥman wis kṛaḍ g tmzgida n quṛtuba tamqrant, anɣmis ad frkn as imrzutn n umzruy ngr isggʷasn ad (1571-1562) lliɣ nn ufan snat tuddisin f iggi n tflut tgʷrramt katalina.[25]

Aẓuṛ n wassaɣ

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Assaɣ ad lli gan f tmzgida ad ikkad uẓuṛ nns tutlayt n tɛṛabt (الكتبيين) lli izdin s unamk s idlisn niɣ wid znuzanin idlisn. ar immal wassaɣ ann mas yadda tlla tizi ann tsbbabt n idlisn lli d dar addur ɣ tama n ugadaz imlaln i tmzgida, iklli d iwn inɣmisn n umzruy mas yadda llan ɣ ugadaz ann 100 n usbbab lli illuzzan g iswak ann yaẓn i tmzgida.

Kkusan imuḥidn tamdint n Mṛṛakc lliɣ yad immut ugllid n imṛabṭin ɛli iwis n yusf g usggʷas 1147. ur rin imuḥidn(lmuwaḥidin) ad fln timitar tisgdanin lli bnan imṛabṭin, lli yadda igan afna nnsn, acku tizi ann gantn d wid iffɣn asgd isnfln asgd(ihrtiqn). ɛbd lmuɛin lli irnan tamnaḍt ann, nttan a ibnan timzgida n lkutbiyin tamzwarut f iggi wakal n iɣrm n ɛli iwis n yusf lli immutn g tsga n iffus - tagut n tɣrmt. snfln imuḥidn kigan Ɣ tmzgida ann ar tagara n tasut tis 12, lliɣ rnan indalusin imuḥidn, tga tmukrist n lqblt ɣ tmzgida kra irxan, imẓẓulla tizi ann ar swalan tiẓilla nnsn s iwala n usarag n tmzgida, macc lliɣ ttbna tmzgida tamaynut ɣ tama n tmzwarut. tkmml tska n tmzwarut tili sul twwuri ɣ tis snat, gnt tmzgadiwin yat abla tasga n lqblt, d ṛṛcum nns d iɣuda nns, d imassn d tmtta s ttbnan gant yat, iɣama umamk d usafu iga walli , lqqblt g tmzgida tamzwarut tfrɣ s smmust tskkʷfal f tsga n lqblt, macc g tmzgida tis snat tfrɣ uggar n 10 tskkʷfal.

Ttbnant tmzgadiwin ann g tasut n ɛbd lmuɛin lli inbḍn (1130-1163). tkmml gis twwuri ɣ cutanbir 1158, ẓẓulln gis middn taẓallit izwarn tizi ann.

Llan iwaliwn g warratn n umzruy ar tt inin mas tkmml twwuri g tmzgida ngr asggʷas 1162-1190-1199. g tagara fln middn timzgida tamzwarut ur a sul gis tẓallan. waxxa ur illi ubṭṭu ngr tmzgida tamzwarut d tmggarut, gn yat tmzgida uggar n ma ittggan 30 n usggʷas. a illiɣ akkʷ fln middn timzgida izwarn.

Tga tmzgida d tssumɛit n lkutubiya ayda igan izaykutn bahra d iddan zɣ tasut tamṛabṭit ar tamuwaḥḥidit.

Aẓkka n tmzgida

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Afruri f uẓkka n tmzgida tamzwarut d tamaynut msasan s kigan, abla tasga twala lqblt gisn. aylli s tẓli tmzgida tamzwarut illa ula ɣ tmzgida tamaynut, mqqar tga tmzgida tamzwarut ɣilad ɣar ixʷrban igan imatarn imzruyn. tẓli tmzgida s yan umamk amuwaḥḥidi ifulkin, zɣ gis rwasn tt kigan n tmzgadiwin lli illan g tizi ann akud ann.

Zɣ bṛṛa
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Taska, lli ittbana s idqqi d uẓṛu n tmlalt , tga turrut nns 80 mitru f tsga n iming, d 60 mitru f tsga n tagut lli izgrarn zɣ iẓẓlmḍ ar iffus, ttyafa kra n twuri tga tin idqqi d ɣ gr isqqfan d tzuniwin ɣ tuẓẓumt n uɣʷrab n lqblt d lmnbṛ. smrsn ɣ tska n iɣʷrban n bṛṛa lli ittbnan f tsga n iffus d iming d win tagut aẓṛu n tmlalt. iḍṛ usmktan n uẓṛu lli illan f tsga n iẓẓlmḍ n tmzgida f uɣʷrab n iɣrm n imṛabṭin taqburt(iɣrm n uẓṛu). aggatn n tmzgida ṛcmn s umamkn unziln. igʷzman n tamawayin lant kigan n tskiwin ilan anawn n iɣʷmran zun d tisilt n wayyis, mssant tskiwin ann g ugnsu n unziɣ. talɣa tamasit g uflla lliɣ mmnzrin isqqfan imsasan ngr asn.

Aqrmud afiruzi f iɣʷrban isksfn s iɣuda n idqqi, s ulɣan n unuɣn immrwasn. ilin awd f uɣʷrab ṛṛcum ikufin unziln.

Yuma usarag n tmzgida g turrut 45 n mitru, zund turrut n isaragn n tuẓẓumt tis tẓa. tili yat tala n luḍu ɣ tuẓẓumt n usarag. tla tmzgida kkuẓ imawn, kṛaḍ zɣ gisn ar tt awin s tzuni n tẓallit nican, tis kkuẓt ar tt awi s usarag n tmzgida. illa yan imi yaḍn amrniw amatay ar itt awi s usarag n tmzgida zɣ uɣʷrab illan f iẓẓlmḍ, f tɣzi n uzlu anammas. ingabal uɣʷrab illa f mnid n tmzgida d tḥuna n uznuzi n idlisn, zɣ ɣid iklli s nbd gam lli, ad zɣ d yucka wassaɣ n tmzgida ‘lkutubiya’. illa dar tmzgida sin iflwan iẓlin, yan gisn iga win lfqih, illa f tsga taẓlmaḍt n lmnbṛ, yan iẓli s ugllid akud nna ira ad nn ikcm lmqsurt.[26]

tigmmi n tẓallit (tiqubba d isqfan)
[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Timzgida lkutubiya ɣilad tmqqur tsna nns tg tlɣa nns tunziɣt, tasga nns taẓlmaḍt tamdrawt d uɣʷrab n lqblt n tmzgida lkutubiya tamzwarut tunf s tsga n iẓẓlmḍ tamnnagt, d umamk n tmzgida iga amrniw amẓlan imsasan d umamk usmann tazi d tinml. f tsgiwin n iɣʷrban iɣʷman n n lmḥrab ar nn tt afa uṭṭunn n iɣʷrban iɣʷman s tugtt n mayllan g iɣʷrban n tmzgadiwin s snat, g uflla n lmḥrab smmus tqubbatin ittbnan s uẓṛu: yat ɣ mnid n lmḥrab, d snat llant f (istwan الاسطوان ) wis kkuẓ nn iwalan f ufasi n (istwan.. n lmḥrab d uẓlmaḍ nns, d snat tqubbatin llan t f sin (istwan اسطوان ) lli imḥadan tagara udl n lmḥrab g s iming awd tagut, bḍan iɣʷrban n tmzgida f tẓa sdan i tsaratin iḍnin lli immrksn fknt udm n tgmmi n tẓallit.

Uṭṭunn tzuna n tgmmi n tẓallit gant sa d mraw tzuniwin, gisn sḍiṣ dln s tduli ila aqrmud, g tagara n tzuniwin tggura s kra n igllayn gan zun d tasila n wayyis g tlɣa nnsn, d kra ɣ igllayn ann msadn, dbbn f isaratn idusn. macc dduktuṛ ḥusayn munis irar taɣḍft s igllayn n tgmmi n tẓallit mas gan s izwar tẓa isnyann f uɣʷrab n lmḥrab - yat tawlaft bahra icnan illa addur s wafulki nns… lli igan zɣ inumaẓ n uẓkka lli ḍfaṛn t kigan n tmzgadiwin - inumaẓ ad baynn bahra g tmzgida n lkutubiya g Mṛṛakc - iɣzzif uzun n tuẓẓumt f tuzunin ann yaḍn. d ula tadala lli illan mnid n uɣʷrab n lqubbt.

Lliɣ yad illa f iggi lmḥrab smmus tqubbatin, tigmmi n tẓallit awd nttat f iggi n tzuni n lmḥrab llan t fllas sḍiṣ t tqubbatin timẓyanin ttbnan t s lyajuṛ, ig uṭṭun nnsn t akkʷ 11 n tqubbanit g tmzgida, tiqubba ad ṛcmn t g ugʷns nnsn t s unuɣn d ikʷlan s kra iga tt anaw… acku g tɣrma tamṛṛukit tga yat tmatart taxatart g tmzgida n lkutubiya tafalkayt.

Lmnbṛ
[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Lmnbṛ n tmzgida ifulki bahra, ittawskar g tasut n ɛbd lmumn, illa ukan sul f ufulki nns ar ɣilad iḥḍa ukan sul kigan n tẓuṛi nns d ufulki nns, waxxa kra ɣ tsgiwin nns rcan t s uswaɣ n izmaz ggutn fllas izrin. isnuml t umrzu tiras inna fllas mas iga lmnbṛ lli kullu ifulkin g tɣrma tamslmt akkʷ. ittawskar lmnbṛ ad zɣ ukccuḍ n tasaft azggʷaɣ d uwraɣ, ikk tt inn ila tiflan n urɣ d uẓṛf. ikka d lmnbṛ ad tamurt n landalus.

Asarag n tmzgida
[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]
lmnzh bahra yuman illan f tsga n lkutubiya

G ḍaṛat n tgmmi n tẓallit, illa usarag n tmzgida, iṭṭfn iɣʷdmma d tzuniwin ssutln as zɣ kṛaḍ t tsggiwin, gnt tsaratin ann gis illan mas gant tid iẓlin lli bddn t tsgiwin n iɣʷrban n usarag akkʷ gnt txfwain nns tisnnanin g uflla ilan tiwẓa yuɣdn f tsga n udm lli nn ittaggʷan f usarag. talɣa ad lli nbdr ad illan dar isaragn niɣ iqṣray lli illan g tmzgida n tinml d tin tacblit.

Ifṛḍaṣ kul n tmzgida n lkutubiya d igʷzman nns zɣ iɣʷrban ar tiqubba ttbnan s igʷzman n iẓṛan lli ur igaddan g uksay nnsn. macc iflwan n tmzgida zɣ tsga taminigt ttbna s lyajuṛ. d uɣʷrab n iming n tmzgida ittbna s tgʷzmin n iẓṛan imsasan s tẓuṛi tafalkayt. ɣ tagara n tska n tmzgida g uflla illa lyajuṛ bac ad ur tili taẓayt f iɣʷrban awd tigmmi n tẓallit ttbna s ɣikan, d uqsri d isaragn g igllayn ttbnan akkʷ s lyajuṛ.[27]

Tamyaddant
[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Illa umamk n tmyaddant f wanaw n tmyaddanin n tmzgadiwin lli ittbnan g tasut n imuḥidn, ttbna s uẓṛu n ljir. s izwar tdl s tqṣṣart tawrḍit tamṛṛakcit, macc imrzutn d willi illan f uḥttu n wayda d tingmi, stin ad kksn taqṣṣart bac ad tban twuri n uẓṛu tamzruyt. tga tiɣzi n tmyaddant 77 mitru s tqubbit lli fllas illan, lli iɣzzifn awd nttat s 8 n mitru. kra iga tt tasga tmɣi ɣ wakal s ssas iggʷzn 12.8 n mitru. ar tt muqql tamyaddant zɣ ugʷmmaḍ n 29 n kilu mitr. ɣan af bahra ttawssan tg a illi ismkḍn zg tmatarin n Mṛṛakc akkʷ, tiɣzi ad nns illa fllas yan uslig unṣib lli isgdln ad ur tili kra n tska fllas iɣzzifn s tt intln (uggar n tɣzi n waddagn n tayniwt). zɣ gis ar ittall lmuddn ladan, s tsgiwin s kkuẓ t illaf f uflla n tmyaddant.

Illa g umamk n tmyaddant yat timit ilan g yat twẓut tamajgalt, d yan ixf ilan talɣa ann, f iggi n tqubbanit nns. g tmurt n lmṛṛuk akkʷ lant tmyaddanin tisgdanin zund amamk ann, s unuɣn s iɣuda s ṛṛcum n tsgiwin, d tskiwin ig mayan anaw n imurin sisn iẓlin.

F ixf n tmyaddant tlla tqʷbbanit. f iggi n tqʷbbanit ann llant twjjiwin n wanas iḍlan s urɣ, mḥadan t yat f iggi n yat ar ttimẓiynt s uflla, iklli igan tamyurt g tmzgadiwin n lmṛṛuk akkʷ. llan kigan n iwaliwn f tawjjiwin ann, nnan kra n iwaliwn mas gan t ɣ uzmz ann tin wurɣ, gnt akud ann kṛaḍ t twjjiwin waha, tis kkuẓt nnan mas tga tarzzift zɣ dar tmɣart n iɛqub lmnṣuṛ i tmzgida bac ad tfru abkkiḍ nns lli ɣ tṛẓa uẓum nns g wayyur n ṛmḍan kraḍt tmirin. tfka anaḍ nns bac ad tssfsi urɣ lli dars illan bac ad gis skrn tawjja tis kkuẓt.

Tnna tamacahut yaḍn mas kullu gant urɣ n tmɣart n ugllid ḥmad lmnṣuṛ asɛdi. tili yat tɣanimt n wanas f tsga n tqubbanit ann, ittyagal gis tizi ann ucnyal n tsgdant ilan aklu n wadal, ar t ittall lmuddn kra iga tt ass n ljamɛ, niɣ ussan n tfaskiwin d tffugliwin n usgd. g iḍ ar ttili tmyaddant f usid tili yat tawlaft bahra icnan.[28]

Tiwlafin n tmzgida n lkutubiya

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Timzgida n Iwis n Yusf

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]
asarag n ugʷns n tinml n iwis n yusf g Mṛṛakc

Tlla tmzgida n iwis n yusf g tcrmt tazaykut, tdl s uqrmud adal tili taṣṣumɛit. ttbna tmzgida ad g tasut tis snat d mraw f ufus n ugllid amṛabṭi ɛli iwis n yusf, tili assaɣ nns. tga tizi ann timzgida ɣ illa ljamɛ. macc tizi n imuḥidn ur tt gis yiwi yan iggr as imnɣi isxxurbu tt. yulls i tska nns ugllid asɛdi ɛbdllah lɣalb g tasut n sḍis d mraw, g uzmz n ugllid aɛalawi mulay sliman yulls i tska nns ibnu tt a llig tga tamaynut g tasut n tẓa d mraw, ibnu yas awd taṣṣumɛit. tkmml gis twuri ɣ usggʷas n 1919 niɣ 1920. attalls ad n uẓkka n tmzgida ikks kigan n tmitar lli as igan aẓuṛ, iklli tga ɣilad tmẓẓiy f iklli s tt inn tkka tmzgida tamzwarut, tasga twala lqblt idwr s kigan. ikka tt inn ɛbllah lɣalb awd nttan ibna tinml n iwis n yusf lli iḥadan i tmzgida. tkk tt inn gis tasdlist tg tinml ar gis aqran imḥḍaṛn ar tasut ad ɣ nella.

Taqubbit tamṛabṭit

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tga inigi lli sul isuln g Mṛṛakc lli isulfn taẓuṛi n tẓkka tamṛabṭit. tlla tqubbanit tamṛabṭit g tsga tafasit n usarag n iwis n yusf ɣ tɣrmt tazaykut. ufanin imrzutn lli icnubbcn ɣ ugns n tɣrmt n zɣ usggʷas n 1948 kra n tsurin iẓlin s tɣrma n imṛabṭin g Mṛṛakc ar mmaln t mas tt inn ikka g udɣar ann cnubbcn ammas n tmzgida iḍfaṛn i tmzgida n ɛli iwis n yusf lli xʷlan imuwaḥḥidin (imuḥidn) tizi lliɣ kkusan tiɣrmt asggʷas n 1130. ig inigi f tannayt ad yat tuṛcimt ur bahra tli tifras lli illan f ixf n tqubbit, imrzutn nnan mas iga wassaɣ gis iṛcmn assaɣ n ugllid ɛli iwis n yusf.

tẓli tqubbanit s umamk lli tla, fkan as willi s tt ibnan yat tlɣa tunziɣt, tudmawin n bṛṛa n tqubbit lan ṛṛcum igan tiskt d talɣiwin irwasn titrit ilan sa ixfawn, ifalki ugnsu n tqubbit f tsga n iwalan iẓẓlmḍ d iffus nns snat tskin msasanin immrwasn g talɣa tisilt n wayyis, g tsga n iẓẓlmḍ d iming falkin s snat tskin ibbin.

taqʷbbanit tamṛabṭit tga ɣilad yan udɣar n luḍu lli ibḍan f snat tdaliwin ttyafa asggʷas n 1948 ɣ yat tsga idrn zɣ udɣar g tlla tmzgida. tga amamk bahra ilan aswir nns, tg tamatart n umzruy n uẓkka n lmɣrib.

Timzgida n Lqṣbt

Timzgida n Lqṣbt

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

ar nn ttaggʷa tmzgida n lqṣbt f usays n mulay izid g usuk n lqṣbt g Mṛṛakc, tmlal i iɣrm n lbdiɛ. ibna t lxlift lmuwaḥḥidi iɛqub lmnṣuṛ g tagara n tasut tis snat d mraw, bac ad tg timzgida tamqqrant ɣ lqṣbt nns lliɣ illa nttan d inmɣuṛn nns. tẓli tska nns s umamk igan fɣnit ur illin ɣ tmzgidawin n lmɣrib akkʷ tizi ann. tg nn tmzgida ad taɣnnant ggutn d tmzgida n lkutubiya f uswir, d tṣṣumɛit n tmzgida n lqṣbt dars unuɣn sis iẓlin igan imaynutn g uẓkka amɣribi, urim ad usint akkʷ fllas kigan n tmzgidawin g lmṛṛuk. yulls i tmzgida ad agllid asɛdi mulay ɛbdllah lɣalb ḍaṛat ma ibbaqqi lxzin n lbaṛuḍ lli bahra yaẓn i tmzgida mayad imsar g uzgn n tasut sḍis d mraw. ilin ɣilad ismḍal n isɛdin bṛṛa n uɣʷrab n lqblt n iffus d wanna iran ad tn iẓṛ ass ad ar izray f tsga n tmzgida.

Timzgida n Lmuwasin d tmzgida n iflu n tdkkʷalt

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ttbna tmzgida n lmuwasin (lli ittawssann s wassaɣ n tmzgida n igʷrramn) ɣ tasut n ugllid asɛdi mulay ɛbd llah lɣalb ngr 1562-1563 d 1572-1573. tlla tmzgida ad g usuk lmuwasin iga usuk ad agzzum zɣ yan wammas ismunn tasdlist d lḥmmam d tinml tamuslmt d yat tala mmu kraḍt tskwin ttawssan s ism n tala n lmuwasin. tala ad tga dar imzdaɣ kra ilan addur lli ufan middn ad zɣ gis ttagʷmn aman izddign, tṛcm s unuɣn d tirra tamslmt, tg tala ad tala bahra ilan atig g tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc.

F tsga tlla tmzgida n iflu n tadkkʷalt s tagut, lli bnan akud ann nit lliɣ ttbna tmzgida n lmuwasin, tili awd nttat zund amamk lli tla tmzgida lqṣbt, mayad ar immal mas lan amamk ad bac ad ig yan wanaw n uẓkka lli s rad ttbnan iswak imaynutn, tizi lli ɣ rad smattin udayn zɣ usuk n udayn awintn s lmllaḥ amaynu yaẓn i lqṣbt.

timzgida d zzawit n sidi bn lɛbbas g mṛṛakc

Timzgidawin yaḍnin

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Llan tmzgidawin yaḍn g Mṛṛakc zun d : timzgida n iwis n ṣalaḥ, timzgida n brima, zzawit n sdi blɛbbas, zzawit n tgzult, d zzawit n ssi yusf iwis n ɛli, d tmzgida n ssi mulay lqṣuṛ, zzawit n ssi ɛbdllah lɣzwani, d tmzgida n tamṛwaṣut.

Taknist n imsgguyta igʷrramn

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]
Imgradn lli sis iẓlin : Lkanisa n imsgguyta igʷrramn
agʷns n lkanisa taṛumanit takatulikit (lkanisa n imsgguyta igʷrramn) Mṛṛakc lmṛṛuk.

Tẓil lkanisa lli igan s wassaɣ : (lkanisa n imsgguyta igʷrramn) s tutlayt tanglizit (church of the holy martyrs), tga lkanisa ad yat tfalkayt g uẓkka n tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc, tg yat zɣ taknisin lli ifulkin ɣ gr taknisin takatulikiyin g tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc lli illan g tsga tamaynut n tɣrmt.[29]

Ttbna lkanisa ad takatulikit ɣ ddaw n ufrag n fṛanṣa g usggʷas n 1928, tẓil tẓkka nns tg yat tmuzunt lli d dar atig akswat, s wanaw n unuɣn iẓlin s tɣrma n lmṛṛuk d ddikuṛ iẓlin s fṛanṣa, tga lkanisa ad tamatart n tnzgit n tska lli igan tin tasut lli izrin.

Tnnuṛẓm iflwan nns i middn g usggʷas 1929. tili g giliz lli bahra ittamun s middn, g tuẓẓumt n tɣrmt, lkanisa ad tga tamatart n umsuruf d ufra lli illan g tmurt n lmṛṛuk ngr isgdan akkʷ.[30]

Ɣilad ar tsbrrak lkanisa ad s kigan n imallayn lli ranin ad ẓṛn agʷnsu nns, bac ad ẓṛn taẓuṛi lli s tɣuda g ugʷnsu nns awd bṛṛa nns, d ula ar sis kccmn wid ranin ad gis ẓẓalln, irin ad isunfu iman nnsn.[31]

Tiwlafin n tknist n imsgguyta igʷrramn
[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Lkanis n tẓallit n tkrrayt

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Illa lkanis n tẓallit n tkrrayt g tuẓẓumt n usuk n udayn, ig ɛzṛat nacim (asfsr illa g tdala tanafllat) ɣ lkanis ad a illi gis iẓlin ig fɣnit, acku ar gis tzdaɣnt tmɣarin timɣribin g tmṣṛay imlaln i imi n lkanis n udayn niɣ kra n tmṣṛay yaḍn. ili yan ibrgmmi ilan ikʷlan n uzzgza d umlil lli igan ammas n umun n udayn, ammas ad ɣ tmma tinml n tlmud (ttawṛat) d yan usirm n imẓlaḍ. gn iṣmḍal n myaṛa iṣmḍal n udayn kullu mqquṛnin g lmṛṛuk, falkin iṣmḍal ad s iklu umlil d iṣmḍal n umlal, zdin iṣmḍal ad d lmllaḥ agʷns n tɣrmt tazaykut.

Illa ɣ Mṛṛakc awd lkanis tigmmi n il, d kanis bitun, d kanis taẓallit n bnḥas.

Iṣmḍal

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]
Iṣmḍal n igldan isɛdin

Iṣmḍal n isɛdin

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]
unuɣn g Iṣmḍal n igldan n isɛdin

Ttbnan iṣmḍal n isɛdin g tasut tis sḍis d mraw gn iṣmḍal n igldan n isɛdin d tawja nnsn. llan f tsga n iffus n tmzgida n lqṣbt. isggʷasn ad izrin ur issn yan is llan allig tn ufan umrzutn ifṛanṣin asggʷas n1917 lliɣ sulfn idɣarn ann zɣ ignna. iṣmḍal ann smann ma ittggan 60 n imttin igan tawja n isɛdin lli igan s uẓuṛ asif n dra. illa uṣmḍl n ugllid asɛdi ḥmad lmnṣuṛ adhbi d tawja nns, ittawmḍal lmnṣuṛ nttan d immis g usmḍl n tawja asggʷas n 1590 lliɣ ssimɣurn tasna n uṣmḍl amkkuẓ lli izwarn is illa lli ibna ɛbd llah lɣalb. gan amamk iẓlin i uṣmḍl n ugllid asɛdi ḥmad lmnṣuṛ adhbi, lli ilan inuɣn s kigan, ur igi zund iṣmḍal n inṣayṛin g iɣrm azggʷaɣ g tɣṛnat n ṣṣbanyul. aṣmḍl n ugllid asɛdi idl s usɣar n larz lli iṛcmn s unuɣn illan g snat d mraw n tsirit igan tin rrxam n kirara, d iɣʷrban nns llan tunuɣin tinzgay timslmin iṛcmn ɣ zllij, d tirra taɛṛabt igan unuɣn, d ṛṛcum n tuga illan f lgabṣ iṛcmn. ɣ tmṣṛit ann llan awd willi t bahra imlaln ɣ tawja nns, d inbaḍn nns, kigan n iṣmḍal ann lan inagan ibddnf tɣzi ganin rrxam. g tama n tmṣṛit ann llant snat tmṣṛay mqqurnin yat zɣ gisnt tkka tt inn tga tamṣṛit n tẓallit, ili gis lmḥrab, macc tawja taɛalawit tskr gis adɣar ɣ rad ilin ismḍal n tawja nnsn.

Iṣmḍal n sa irgazn

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ttawssan Mṛṛakc s iṣmḍal n (sa irgazn), ar tddun middn ad tn ẓṛn kra igatt asggʷas g ussan ɣ tlla ‘ẓẓyaṛt’.

Sa n irgazn gantn: yusf iwis ɛli aṣnhaji, lqaḍi aɛyyaḍ, bu lqasm sshili, bu lɛbbas sbti, muḥmmad iwis n sliman agzuli, ssi ɛbd lɛziz tbbaɛ, ssi ɛbd llah lɣzwani. iṣmḍal ad nnsn gan ammas n zzawit nnsn, lli tnt igan: zzawit n ssi blɛbbas(ttawssan), zzawit n tgzult, zzawit n ssi ɛbd lɛziz, zzawit n ssi yusf iwis n ɛli, zzawit n ssi lɣzwani (lli ittawssann awd s wassaɣ n mulay lqṣuṛ).

Iṣmḍal yaḍnin

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Zun d tiɣrmawin n tasutin izwarn, Mṛṛakc awd nttat llan iṣmḍal n inmɣurn nns bṛṛa n tɣrmt, slahwan tt akkʷ ar tn inn ttafat mlaln i imawn n tɣrmtt. ilin awd iṣmḍal n iflu n lxmis, d iṣmḍal n ssi sshili, iṣmḍal n iflu n tɣmat lli bahra imqqurn, awd lmllaḥ n udayn iṭṭf aṣmḍl nnsn lli ittawssann s iṣmḍal n myaṛa.

Lmllaḥ

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Illa lmllaḥ n udayn(asuk n udayn aqbur), ɣ udɣar n lqṣbt g tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc tazaykut, iming n usays n birblantiṛ. ittbna asggʷas n 1558 ɣ ufus n isɛdin g yan unsa ikka tt inn iga axduc n isan n ugllid. azmz ann kigan zɣ n umun n udayn gan isbbabn d idbab n udrim, d idbab n tzuzaf, d isyyaɣn n urɣ d uẓṛf, gn ignnayn d imsaɣn n skkaṛ. g tasut tis sḍis d mraw, ikka tt inn lmllaḥ iṭṭf taliwin n waman d turtatin, ili gis lkanis nnsn d igadazn sisn iẓlin. allig d kcmn ifṛanṣin asggʷas n 1912, ur sul ufin udayn ad ssaɣn akal bṛṛa n tɣrmt, ar nit ittimɣur lmllaḥ, allig iga lmllaḥ illi iga ɣilad, lli mi ttinin ɣilad asuk n ssalam (afra), macc asuk ad maynu imẓẓiy f usuk n udayn azayku, tili gis lkanis nnsn lli igan s wassaɣ kanis n tẓallit n tkrrayt, tlla tssult i usarag (asays) n usuk ann.

Isalayn

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Llan kigan n isalayn g tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc kra igatt asalay d tɣawsiwin isfsr:

Asalay n tgmmi n ssi Sɛid
Asalay n tgmmi n ssi Sɛid

Asalay n tgmmi n ssi Sɛid

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Illa usalay n tgmmi n ssi sɛid lli ittawssan awd s usalay n tẓuṛi tamɣribit, iẓẓlmḍ n iɣrm n lbahya, mnid n uɣaras n ṛṛyaḍ n zzitun amaynu. ikka tt inn usalay ad iga iɣrm n ssi sɛid, gʷmas n bba ḥmad. gnt tɣawsiwin lli isman usalay ad tiɣawsiwin lli kulli ifulki g lmṛṛuk akkʷ, isman( tuzuzaf n waṭlaṣ mqqurn, d waṭlaṣ amẓyan, d iffus n yaggugn, d uẓṭṭa n lḥuz d win laṭlaṣ mqqurn, d lfnaṛat n zzit zg trudant, d idqqi azzgza n usfi d idqqi adal zɣ tmggrut, d tniḍi n ilm n Mṛṛakc). tg yat tgzzumt lli gis illa tad igan tazaykut bahra tṭṭf addur akswat, tagzzumt ad tga yan umda n rrxam ittawskar g umzwaru n tasut tis yan d mraw lli iwalan i uzmz n tnbaḍt tamawit tandalusit g ssbanyul.

Asalay amaziɣ n turtit n Majuṛil

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]
Asalay amaziɣ n turtit n Majuṛil

Ar immal usalay ad i middn kigan n tgʷzmin d tmatarin timaziɣin d ifl umzruy, tilli iddrn g kra igatt adɣar g tmazirt n lmɣrib. zɣ iẓẓlmḍ d rrif ar tanzruft. smaynun asalay amaslm lli s tt inn ikkan illa g ul n turtit n majuṛil, bac ad yamu asalay amaziɣ, d irin ad ḥḍun tiɣawsiwin ad bac ad ilint f tɣarast n usfsr iklli kullu gan isalayn imaḍlann. tarabbut lli yurun taswingmt n usalay ad: slima naji lli igan taskant d tamyassant tantṛubulujit g ṛṛbaṭ, d ṛuman siminil lli igan awd nttan amyassan antṛubuluji ig amrzu g usinag n tnnurza d usbuɣlu ɣ ṛṛbaṭ, d ḥmad skunti iga awd nttan amyassan antṛubuluji g usinag anamur n tmassanin n isgʷlal d wayda g ṛṛbaṭ.

Ismaynu umnzag n uẓkka kristuf maṛtin asalay, ilqqm as sinugrafit, ig amamk yaḍnin ismnid gis asalay n if san luṛan g Mṛṛakc, lli d iẓṛa uggar n 65000 n ufgan, ɣ tama nns iga umassn n isalayn birun dalstrum aɣawas n usalay ad g dujanbir 2019.

S yat tsna igan uggar n 200 mitru amkkuẓ, ismnid usalay uggar n 600 n tgzzumt, lli immalan tasgiwin n tussna tamaziɣt g lmɣrib, tikaṛḍiwin d imgrad isnumln s tutlayin (tafṛanṣiṣt d tnglizit d tɛṛabt) d tiwlafin tifutugrafin d isura n laṛcif, d warratn igan asliẓiṛ bac ad awsn i inbgiyn n usalay iɣ rad ẓṛn maṛṛa ammasn n usalay.

llant kkuẓt tmṣṛay tisliẓiṛin: 1 - imaziɣn, 2 - tiwuriwin tizaykutin zun d ( timyurin, tiwuriwin n ufus, isfuglutn), 3 - tizuzaf ( asliẓiṛ n tzuzaf timaziɣin timɣribin), 4- timlsa ( aṛṛaḍn, aẓṭṭa, iflwan, imassn n uẓawan).

Asalay n Mṛṛakc

Asalay n Mṛṛakc

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Illa usalay n Mṛṛakc ɣ wammas azayku, g iɣrm n tgmmi n lmnbhi, ibnat lmhdi lmnbhi g umzwaru n tasut n simraw. tulls i tska nns s uḥṭṭu iggutn timrslt n aɛmaṛ bnjllun isdwr tt iskr gis asalay asggʷas n 1997. tga tgmmi s ixf nns amdya n uẓkka andalusi aklasiki, ilint taliwin g tuẓẓumt n usarag anammas, d idɣarn n igiwr izaykutn, d lḥmmam ilan tamslt iṛcmn d kigan n unuɣn. yan uɣʷdmmi mqqurn g usalay ad ( lli s tt inn ikkan tga yan usarag idln ɣilad s lblluṛ d lkttan) tlla gis yat ttriya mqqurn ttyagal g tuẓẓumt n tduli tga igʷzman n izuɣar iṛcmn s tirra. iḥḍa usarag ad kigan n tfras nns tizaykutin lli yad lli ila zɣ wass izwarn, d ula laḥwaḍ n wakal d unuɣn, ḥḍan tifras nnsn tamzwarut. isman usalay ad tiɣawsiwin lli d ifla umzruy amṛṛuki amaynu d uzayku, d kra n inzitn bdrn idlisn n umzruy d idrimn izaykutn d idqqi s ma ila lmɣrib n tussna tamaziɣt d mad fllas ikcmn zɣ tussna n waɛṛabn d tin udayn.

Asalay n Muḥmmad wis sḍiṣ i tɣrma n waman

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ibna t ugllid Muḥmmad wis sḍis ɣ 5 innayr 2017 g ufus n iwis agldun Mulay Lḥasan, yuma usalay ad g tsna nns 20 n ifḍ n id mitru amkkuẓ, s uṭṭun n udrim ilkmn 163 mlyun n drhm. ig asalay izwarn g lmɣrib lli iẓlin s umzruy d tɣrma n waman g lmṛṛuk.

Tawlaft onnuṛẓmn usalay amaynu iẓlin s wayda tamɣribit g mṛṛakc g wass n n 23 f fbṛayṛ asggʷas n 2023 tama n jamɛ lfna

Asalay amaynu

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

g wass n 23 f fbṛayṛ asggʷas n 2023, tnnuṛẓm tmawast n tussna asalay amaynu lli ingabaln d usays n jamɛ lfna, ig usalay ad walli iẓlin s wayda adlsan amɣrbi arkmam, ig usalay ad yan umskti n wayda lli d iɣaman g mṛṛakc, ili usalay ad tama n mṛṛakc iẓḍaṛ ku yan ad t iẓṛ ismaqql tiɣawsiwin lli gis llanin.

Isalayn yaḍnin g Mṛṛakc

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]
  • Asalay n tgmmi lbaca
  • Asalay n tgmmi n taṣṣuṛt g Mṛṛakc
  • Asalay n lmuwasin
  • Asalay n taskwin

Timrsal n uslmd d tussna

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Aslmd

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Llant g Mṛṛakc kigan n tsdawiyin d tinmal, zɣ gisnt tasdawit n lqaḍi aɛyaḍ ( lli ittawssan awd s wassaɣ n tsdawit n Mṛṛakc), ilin gis isinagn, asinag anamur n tmassanin tisnsin g Mṛṛakc (ensa marrakech), lli ittbnan asggʷas n 2000 zɣ tsga n tmawast n uslmd amajgal tẓli s umrzu anzgan d umassan, d tɣiwant n tmassanin d tatiknit lli illan ɣ giliz lli ittawssan mas tga tamzwarut ɣ lmɣrib. tili sub di gu n Mṛṛakc, lli ittawssan s wassaɣ n tinml tamajgalt n tsbbabt g Mṛṛakc, tga taɣiwant lli isbdd ḥmad bnnis asggʷas n 1987. tinml ad twala i tinml tamajgalt n tsbbabt g tuluz ɣ fṛanṣa, zɣ asggʷas n 1995 tga tinml ad kigan n tdrawin d iɣawasn d kigan n tsdawitin g mirikan, zɣ gisnt tasdawit n dilawiṛ, tasdawit n sant tumas, tasdawit n tsga n uklahuma, d tsdawit n lwis tanamurt, d tsdawit n timbl.

Tinml n Iwis n Yusf (tinml n Bn Yusf)

Tinml n Iwis n Yusf (tinml n Bn Yusf)

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Nnan warratn imzruyn mas tlla tlalit n tinml ad g uzmz lli iwalan imriniyn. agllid asɛdi ɛbdllag lɣalb ad yullsn i tska nns ngr asggʷas n 1565-1564. tg s tidt tfalkayt n tinmal timɣribin.

Tla tinml n bn yusf yan waddur akswat, acku tlla g usays n bn yusf, tasi kigan n tmatarin lli as d ifl umzruy tg inigi n tasutin ggutnin zrinin g umzruy, tg ul zwarn n tmdint n Mṛṛakc.

Rurn d isɛdin i usuk ad lliɣ gis bnan tinml s talɣa nns tamkkuẓt lli ilkm ɣ tsna 1680 n mitru amkkuẓ. f tɣzi n kkuẓ tasutin, tga tinml talli yurun kigan n imussann tg ula awttas n ku amlmad ira ad iɣr tili dars tussna, slahwantt akkʷ tussna n usgd. awd tga yan udm n uẓkka d imumak lli igan anaw lli s ẓlin isɛdin azmz ann, zɣ uɣdmmi n tinml ar ẓṛṛan middn yat tqubbit lli ɣ llan unuɣn n lgabṣ. ɣ tuẓẓumt n usarag n tinml illa yan lḥuḍ, d issqfan g uflla nnsn timṣṛay illan g tdala tanafllat. tamṣṛit n tẓallit llan gis kṛaḍt tmsal ibḍa tnt sin imuɣad n isaran n rrxam. tili f tsga n ku iɣʷban ann s kṛaḍ tisksal n ukccuḍ, kkan tt inn gant tasdlisin n inlmadn n tinml.

asarag n Tinml n Iwis n Yusf (tinml n Bn Yusf)

Tkka tt inn tga tinml n bn yusf lli illan f tsga n iẓẓlmḍ n tɣrmt tazaykut, taɣiwant tamslmt g Mṛṛakc, tla ism n ugllid amṛabṭi ɛli bn yusf(1142-1106), agllid ad issimɣur aswir n tɣrmt ad, tg tinml ad nns tinml lli kullu imqquṛn g lmɣrib tg awd taɣiwant lli ilan addur g iẓẓlmḍ n tfriqt, ar gis yaqra uggar n 900 n umḥḍaṛ.

Ttbna tɣiwant ad g uzmz n imriniyn (tasut tis kkuẓt d mraw) g ufus n ugllid amrini bu lḥsn tzdi d tmzgida n bn yusf lli illan g tama nns. amun ad n tinmal ar isslmad iskkinn n usgd amuslm zund tinmal lli illan g fas d mknas d taza. issiwrrid ugllid asɛdi ɛbd llah ɣalb(1574-1557) ibnu tinml asggʷas n 1564 bac ad tg tinml lli kullu imqqurn ɣ lmɣrib. g usggʷas n 1565, ikmml tawuri lli s yumṛ ugllid ɛbd llah bn ɣalb, iklli immala ṛṛcm lli illan g tmṣṛit n tẓallit.

Asarag nns iga zɣ usɣar n larz d rxam d lgabṣ. iklli immala usgd amuslm, ur ilaq ad ilin ɣ unuɣn ṛṛcum igan udmawn n ufgan niɣ win imudar, gan unuɣn n tinml ɣas ṛṛcum n tirra n ddin d imumak inzgan. ikka tt inn iga muḥmmad lifrani (1745-1670) iga zɣ inmɣurn n islmadn n tinml. ittawqqan udɣar ad asggʷas n 1960, allig smaynun taska nns, innuṛẓm f middn bac ad ig tamatart tamzruyt g usggʷas n 1982.

Tasdawit n Lqaḍi Aɛyyaḍ

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tasdawit n lqaḍi aɛyyaḍ (tasdawit n Mṛṛakc) lli ittbnan asggʷas n 1978, d asinag anamur n tmassanin tisnsin g Mṛṛakc (ensa marrakech) lli s tt iḍfaṛn, lli illan asggʷas n 2000, ig mayan tanyaft n tmawast n usslmd amajgal tẓli s umrzu anzgan d umassan, d tɣiwant n tmassanin d tatiknit lli illan ɣ giliz lli ittawssan mas tga tamzwarut ɣ lmɣrib. tamnhla n tsdawit tumẓ 13 n tmrsal g Mṛṛakc tansift lḥuz d ɛbda dkkʷala g lmɣrib ɣ kkuẓt tɣrmawin mqqurnin. awd qlɛa n isrɣinn d taṣṣuṛt.

Timsal n umzgun

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]
tamsult tagldant n umzgun g Mṛṛakc

Tga tmsult tagldant g Mṛṛakc d usinag afṛanṣi d tgmmi n tacrift zɣ tmrsal imqqurn lliɣ a ttlmadn middn taẓuṛi n umzgun g tɣrmt.

tg tmsult tagldant, lli ibna umnzag n uẓkka atunsi caṛl bukara, ig as isaran, ar ismnid umsul ad timzgunin n taḍṣa d lubbiṛa d uḥwac afṛanṣi d waɛṛab. d ar ismnid kigan n isffuglutn i imallayn g isuyas n tɣrmt imqqurn d iswak g iḍ.

Isurad

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Llan g Mṛṛakc uggar n 124 n usarud (lḥmmam).

Assay

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Assay abrdan

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ttawssan Mṛṛakc s tugtt n isudaf, ilin awd kigan n isnmuddutn d tmssudutin ɣ Mṛṛakc, zdin tiɣrt ad ngr tɣrmt ṛṛbaṭ igan amrnu n tgldit n lmɣrib lli illan g iẓẓlmḍ, d tɣrmt n ugadir s iffus, ggutn ibrdan inamurn lli issufuɣn zɣ Mṛṛakc s tɣrmawin yaḍn.

Azagʷz n Mṛṛakc Lmnaṛa

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Illa uzagʷz n Mṛṛakc lmnaṛa amaḍlan f tmyaggugt n 3 id kilu mitr f iffus n tagut n Mṛṛakc. tg yat tmrslt tamḍlant ar tsbrrak s kigan n imuddutn zɣ timizar n bṛṛa akkʷ. illa uzagʷz ad f tmattuyt n 471 mitru. illa ɣ uzagʷz ad sin n usbdud n inmmudda munn g yan wammas tili tayyaḍ tga tamaynut. llan isbdad ad s sin t1 / t2 f tsna n 42000 id mitru, ẓḍaṛn ad asin 4.5 n mlyun n inmmudda ku asggʷas. tiɣzi n uṛḍḍam tla 4.5 kilumitr d turrut nns tla 45 mitru. asbiddad n taylalin iẓḍaṛ ad yasi 14 n taylalt anaw n bwing 737 d kkuẓt taylalin anaw n bwing 747. asbdud n wallal ilkm ɣ tsna nns 340 n mitru amkkuẓ.

Asbdad n ubrid n uzzal

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ittbna usbdad n wassay n ubrid n uzzal g usggʷas n 1923 llig illa ufrag afṛanṣi g lmɣrib, macc amrsl ad amaynu innuṛẓm asggʷas n 2008 bac ad yili g udɣar n uqdim. amamk nns usint zɣ mad d ifl umzruy n tmatarin g uẓkka n lmɣrib azayku.

Tilggʷit n wasif n tansift

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

tilggʷit illan f wasif n tansift, tga tilggʷit n uẓṛu bnantt imuḥidn (lmuwaḥidin) g tasut tis sin d mrawt tili g udɣar g tt inn tkka tlggʷit lli d flan imṛabṭin lli ixxurban. amamk nns ittawskar bac ad tg azzgr n wasif tizi ɣ gis inggayn ku asggʷas. tkka tt inn g umzwaru tla 15 n tskt, macc lliɣ ssimɣurn turrut nns tṭṭf 27 n tskt, d ar ssimɣurn tilggʷit ad tizi nna yuma wasif tmqqur turrut nns. iskan n tlggʷit ad lan ixfawn ur msadnin bac ad ili ɣ tiddas ɣ mnid n waman.

Asbdud n isnmudda n imi n dkkʷala:

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

iga yan usbdad n tmssudutin illan g tama iflu n dkkʷala  g mṛṛakc, tg asbdad lli kullu yuman s ussay g lmṛṛuk akkʷ, ilin gis  kigan n wammasn iẓlin s kra igatt tasga d kra igatt amuddu, ilin g ugnsu nns kigan n tizuɣa n tsbbabt. imlal usbdud ad i kigan n idɣarn lli ittawssan g mṛṛakc.

Isunn

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Igmamn

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]
takaṛḍa n igmamn n tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc
  • Bab Ahmr: Taggurt tazggʷaɣt ( s taɛrabt : باب احمر , s tafransist : la porte rouge ) illa tama n ugmmiw ageldan. Bab Ahmer iga agmam amnsay illan ɣ " La Médina " , Itussan s " daqqa merrakchiya"
  • Giliz: Agmam n Gueliz ( s taɛrabt : ڭيليز , s tafransist : Guéliz ) yussi yism nss zɣ Jbel Gueliz ( Adrar n Gueliz ) , illa ɣ ugafa utrim n lmdina taqburt .
  • Tiɣrmt tazaykut: Agmam n Lmdina ( s taɛrabt : المدينة , s tafransist : La Médina ) iga yan ugmam imqqurn d axatar n tamdint n Amurakuc . Lan gis bzzaf n imukan tmerritin . Uggar n 40 000 n inazuren xdemn gis .
  • Livrnaj: Agmam n Livernaj ( s taɛrabt : الحي الشتوي , s tafransist : L'hivernage ) iga yan ugmam n tamdint n Amurakuc . Illa ɣ iffus utrim n agmam n Gueliz . Lan gis villat d hotelat
  • Dawdiyyat: ( s taɛrabt : داوديات , s tafransit : daoudiyyate ) iga yat tuddurt li illan berra n ssur aqdim. Ismns amaddud iga "Lḥiy lmuḥmmadi".
  • Sidi yusf bn ɛli
  • Adwaṛ n lɛṣkṛ
  • Lmasira
  • Azli
  • Usun n iziki
  • Sukuma
  • Sidi Mbaṛk
  • Lmḥamid
  • Usun ṣṣinaɛi
  • Lmcwaṛ - lqṣbt
  • Targa
  • Ɛin iṭṭi
  • Lmasira
  • Lafaq
  • Nnaxil
asazzl niɣ amḥizwar n tmssudutin  g mṛṛakc

Tunnunt

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tga Mṛṛakc tiɣrmt n tunnunt zɣ zik, ɣilad llant gis kigan n trubba n tkurt n uḍaṛ (tawjja n uḍaṛ) timɣribiyin:

  • Itri n Mṛṛakc
  • Lkawkab amṛṛakci
  • Asrir n tmuludit n Mṛṛakc
  • Asrir n ulambi n Mṛṛakc

Ili g Mṛṛakc awd annar n mulay ḥasan n umsizzl lli iɣzzifn 4624 id kilumitr, tsnnubga tifrkiwin n tsmɣurt n umaḍal n tmssudutin n tmallayt, d lfuṛmila 2 d tsmɣurt n atu - ji - bi, ar gis ittili awd lmaṛaṭun n Mṛṛakc.

Tga tunnunt n lgulf yat zɣ tunnunin lli ittawssann g tɣrmt, ilin gis 3 wannarn.

Tiram

[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]
lkas n watay s liqqamt

Anawn n tiram ɣ tɣrmt ad n Mṛṛakc iggut kigan, kigan n tiram nns ar tnt cttan middn bla rɣant, ili gis kra iga tt anaw n tɛṭṭaṛt ( ṛas lḥanut), lli igan tamunt n mraw n tɛṭṭaṛt: ttabl, lkṛwitt, isknjbir, lqqrfa, ififl asggan, lqrqum, d cuc wṛd.

Aylli s ittawssan unwal amṛṛakci bahra iga t taṭnjit tamṛṛakcit, d ṭṭajin amṛṛakci lli illan s tɣarast n tmizar n udrar issutln i Mṛṛakc, ar ssnwan ɣ taṭnjit tifyyi n ufunas niɣ tin izimmr niɣ tin waɣaḍ d wudi tili taɛṭṭaṛt nns, gn tt inn iggi n iɣd irɣan ar d tnu s imikk d imikk. ṭṭajin awd nttan ar gis ssnwan anawn n tfyyi d igumma ili taɛṭṭaṛt nns gnt inn iggi n trgin ar inwwa.

tawlaft n wanaw n tiram lli ilan isn n (taṭnjit) g mṛṛakc

Ar ssnwan ɣ ṭṭajin afullus d tfyyi n ufunas d tin waɣaḍ d tin izimmr awd anawn n islman, gn fllas lfakit zun d zzitun d llimun iṣyyṛn gnt inn ar inaw iggi n trgin. illa wanaw n ṭṭajin yaḍn llan gis igumma d lḥimẓ ilẓan. illa maɣ attggan i ṭṭajin ann udi bac aggis tili tmḍit immimn.

Lqimṛun d ufulls d tlbṛiwin yuman s llimun gant zɣ tiram lli s ittawssan Mṛṛakc. ar ssnwan ṛṛuẓ d zzaɛfṛan d zzbib d taɛṭṭaṛt d lluz.

d ssksu d nttan ar fllas tt ilin igumma iklli s ittawssan mas iga tirmt n middn g lmɣrib akkʷ.

Tili tbṣṭilt lli igan tuɣrifin yuman s ibrriwn n ufullus niɣ atbir lli inwan d lluz d lqrfa d tɛṭṭaṛt d skkʷaṛ.

Ili uskkif n lḥurriya lli as ttinin g Mṛṛakc tlla gis tfyyi inwan d lḥimẓ d tlintit d lfirmikili d tmẓḍit n maṭica, irwin d lqzbur d taɛṭṭaṛt d lmaɛdnus.

Tili lkfta (tifyyi ittẓḍan) d tasa, d umrqaz d uɣlal, d ilawan, lli zznzan id bu tiram g tuẓẓumt n usays n jamɛ lfna.

d tamimt s kra iga tt anaw tlla g tɣrmt n Mṛṛakc, zund tacbbakt (tamimt g tlla tɛṭṭaṛt d smsm d tammnt d lluz lli myarn middn ad s tt ssnwan g wayyur n ṛmḍan), niɣ tart s tɛjjint n lfilu d igumma iqqurn, d tciz kik s tiyni.

Tili tmyurt n lkas n watay lli igan tamyurt lli kullu ikkan tagldit n lmɣrib, tga awd tamyurt ad a illi bahra s ittawssan Mṛṛakc, illa maɣ ittawsmnid lkas n watay d liqamt d skkʷaṛ nttan d lbrrad nns niɣ ɣas lkisan waha.

Illa uẓmma n litcin lli s ittawssan jamɛ lfna g Mṛṛakc, llan wida izznzan aẓmma n litcin s ugudi.

Anzir awd nttan illa ɣilad ar inzza g idɣar n tmallayt d isnsa mqqurnin d tmṣṛay n yiḍ, bdrn warratn n umzruy mas tt inn ikka unzir ar inzza g igadazn ɣ tasut n imṛabṭin. ili timaḍ n udayn ar ssaɣn ar zznzan anzir g tɣrmt akud ann. ɣilad anzir ar inzza g idɣarn sis iẓlin.

Tiwlafin

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Aylli sis izdin

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Tamnaḍt n Mrrakc-Asfi
Tamaẓunt: Mrrakc
Timdinin Mrrakc · Lmcur Lqṣba · Ayt Urir · Amẓmiz · Taḥnnawt · Cicawa · Imi n Tanut · Qlɛat Sraɣna · Sidi Rḥḥal · Tamllalt · Taṣṣurt · Asfi · Sbt Gzula · Bn Grir · Sidi Buɛtman · Yusufiya · Cmaɛiya
Timnbaḍin d Tsggʷin Tamnbaḍt n Mrrakc · Tasga n Cicawa · Tasga n Lḥawz · Tasga n Qlɛat Sraɣna · Tasga n Taṣṣurt · Tasga n Rḥamna · Tasga n Asfi · Tasga n Yusufiyya
Tuṣkiwin · Tasdawit n Qaḍi Ɛyyaḍ · Azagz Manara n Mrrakc

Isaɣuln

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  2. whc.unesco.org/ar/list/331
  3. shillington 2005 talɣa 948
  4. 4,0 4,1 et 4,2 Talɣa:Ouvrage
  5. Source : Le climat à Marrakech (en °C et mm, moyennes mensuelles) Hong Kong Observatory [archive]
  6. Relevé météorologique de Marrakech-altitude: 406 m (période 1961-1990)
  7. CIA factbook, (2012) Archived 2014-12-21 at the Wayback Machine
  8. https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%83%D8%B4
  9. https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85_%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%83%D8%B4
  10. https://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/cultural-space-of-jemaa-el-fna-square-00014?RL=00014
  11. https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%83%D8%B4
  12. https://web.archive.org/web/20200729025105/https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13226117
  13. https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%AD%D8%A9_%D8%AC%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%B9_%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%81%D9%86%D8%A7
  14. https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85_%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%83%D8%B4
  15. https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marrakech
  16. https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marrakech
  17. https://www.hespress.com/%D9%82%D8%B5%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%87%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%86%D9%85%D8%A7-%D9%8A%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%84-%D8%B9%D9%90%D8%B4%D9%82-%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%A3%D8%A9-162769.html
  18. https://www.urtrips.com/bahia-palace-marrakesh/
  19. https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%82%D8%B5%D8%B1_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%87%D9%8A%D8%A9
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  22. <1>https://www.alaraby.co.uk/%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%AC%D8%AF-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%83%D8%AA%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%82%D8%A9-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%BA%D8%B1%D8%A8-0</>
  23. https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marrakech
  24. https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marrakech
  25. <>https://www.menara.ma/article/%D8%AC%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%B9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%83%D8%AA%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%85%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%85%D8%A9-%D8%AA%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%AE%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%B1%D9%85%D8%B2%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%AA%D9%83%D8%B1%D8%B3</>
  26. <>https://fr.scribd.com/document/476574938/%D8%AC%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%B9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%83%D8%AA%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9#</>
  27. <>https://www.almayadeen.net/investigation/911361/%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%AC%D9%80%D8%AF-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%83%D8%AA%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9--%D8%AF%D8%B1%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%86-%D9%88%D9%85%D9%81%D8%AE%D8%B1%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B2%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%86</>
  28. <>https://www.marefa.org/%D8%AC%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%B9_%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%83%D8%AA%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9</>
  29. https://www.wikiwand.com/ar/%D9%83%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%B3%D8%A9_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B4%D9%87%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%A1_%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%B3%D9%8A%D9%86_(%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%83%D8%B4)
  30. https://www.safarway.com/property/church-of-the-holy-martyrs_27988
  31. https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%83%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%B3%D8%A9_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B4%D9%87%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%A1_%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%B3%D9%8A%D9%86_(%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%83%D8%B4)