Walili

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Walili
World Heritage Logo global.svg
Adɣar amaḍlan n UNESCO
Volubilis(js)9.jpg
Ismawn
Ism amaziɣ ⵡⴰⵍⵉⵍⵉ
Ism aɛrab وليلي
Ism arumi Volubilis
Tamssugurt
Tamazirt Flag of Morocco.svg Lmɣrib
Tasga Fas-Mknas
Tamnbaḍt Mknas
Tarakalt
Amsidg 34°04′16″N 05°33′13″W / 34.07111°N 5.55361°W / 34.07111; -5.55361Coordinates: 34°04′16″N 05°33′13″W / 34.07111°N 5.55361°W / 34.07111; -5.55361
Tajumma 42 ha
Asggwas n uzmmem 1997
Volubilis plan-fr.svg

Walili (s tfinaɣ: ⵡⴰⵍⵉⵍⵉ; s tɛṛabt: وليلي; s tlatiniyt d tutlayin yaḍnin n Uṛubba: Volubilis) tga yat tmdint tamaziɣt taqdimt, tettuṣka ɣ tasut tiss kṛaḍt nɣ d tiss kkuẓt dat n tlalit, tga yadlli tamaẓunt n tgldit n Muriṭanya. Tga ɣilad yan udɣar adrzan illa ɣ uzaɣar n Says iḍfṛn i tgrawt n wakal n Walili ɣ tsga n Mknas[1].

Ɣ tasut tiss 8 issnta gis Idris Ibn Ɛabdullah anbaḍ n Al Adarisa ɣ Lmɣrib, ɣ tasut tiss 11 fln tt imzdaɣ lliɣ immutty unbaḍ n Al Adarisa s tmdint n Fas, tugtt nnsn mmuttin s tmdint n Mulay Dris Ẓṛhun. Ssntan gis irzzutn irkyulujitn zɣ tizwiri n tasut tiss 20, aylli gis ittyafan yujja tt ad tettuzmim ɣ tlgamt n idɣarn imaḍlann n Yunisku asggʷas 1997.[1]

Ism[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tawlaft n ixrban n Walili

Tugtt n imrza urmn ad ssfrun ism n Walili zɣ tguri talatinit [wulibulis], nɣ zɣ iɣbula aɛṛabn, zund Carl Juzif Tiṣu (fr) (1828–1884) lli innan mas tettubdar Walili ɣ kra n iɣbula n Taɛṛabt s yism Qaṣṛ Farɛun (قصر فرعون Iɣrm n frɛun)[2], ttun nɣ d ur rin ad rzun s unamk ɣ tdlsa d tutlayt n imzdaɣ inṣliyn n udɣar, aylli yujjan aẓuṛ n yism ur ittyawssan s tnɣda, macc irwas is ar itturray s tguri Tamaziɣt Walilt nna igan yan imɣi ar ittmɣay ɣ tamwin n Walili.[3] Mklli iẓḍaṛ yism n Walili ad dars tili tzdayt ula d yism n yat tqbilt tamaziɣt bdrn tt imrza n umzruy iṛumiyn s yism Ulubilitani.[2]

Adɣar[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tettuṣka tmdint n Walili ɣ uɣlla n udrar n Ẓṛhun tama wasif n Xuman d wasif n Fṛṭaṣa, tlkm tjumma nns 42 hiktar, taggug s 3 kilumitr f tmdint n Mulay Dris Ẓṛhun, 30 kilumitr f tmdint n Mknas, d 63 kilumitr f tmdint n Fas. llan tama nns kra n izaɣarn mu ifulki wakal nnsn, ar smɣayn anawn n waddagn, s lawan akkʷ addagn n uzmmur nna igan llsas n tdmsa ɣ tsga.[3]

Amzruy[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Takṛḍa n Muriṭanya Taṭanjiyt

Ikka tt nn udɣar issutln i Walili ittuzdaɣ zɣ uzmz Atlanti (en) d unyuliti (en), attay n 5.000 n isggʷasn aya. Irzzutn irkyulujitn ttuskarnin ɣ udɣar n Walili sduggan d kra idqqi mi itturray usakud ar azmz anyuliti, irwas kra n igzman ttyafanin ɣ Ibirya.[4] Kkan tt nn gis Iqarṭajiyn ɣ tasut tis 8, aya mlant t kra n tmitar lli ɣinn fln, zun d ixrban n lmaɛbad n wakuc Baɛl, idqqi nnsn d kra n iẓṛan ɣ gzin tirra nnsn s Tutlayt Tafiniqiyt.[5]

Tkcim tmdint n Walili ɣ Tgldit n Muritanya ddu tnbaḍt n Iṛumiyn ḍffiṛ taḍuṛi n Qaṛṭaj ɣ usggʷas 146 dat ntlalit.[5] Tsul tzrirt n Ifiniqiyn ɣ Walili mnnaw isggʷsn f alliɣ yad tlla ddu ifasn n Iṛumiyn, ɣ imdyatn n tzrirt ad, llan inzzurfa lli dar iɣama yism aqaṛṭajiy Suffit.[6] Issnta Yuba II tuṣka n yat tamaẓunt tagldant ɣ Walili daṛat n mad t issnṣb Ugustin f udabu n Tgldit n Muritanya ɣ useggwas 25 dat n tlalit.[7] Iɣra Yuba Wiss Sin ɣ Ṛuma, itahl s Klyubaṭṛa Silini II, illis n Maṛk Anṭuni and Cleopatra, mqqar iga Yuba d yiwis Bṭulimi imaziɣn s laṣl, tiɣri d uswingm nnsn gan iṛumiyn, slawann akkʷ Taẓuṛi d Tmsdagt taṛumiyt taqburt, zun d tmamkt lli s iṣka Yuba tamdint n Wlili.[5]

Tadmsa[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Azrg n uzatim (lmɛṣṣṛt n zzit)

Tettuṣka tmdint n Walili ɣ yan udɣar yẓn i izaɣarn fulkinin d isiffn n Xuman d Fṛṭasa, aylli as ifkan yan waddur yattuyn ɣ yigr n tkrza zɣ izmaz iqburn, zɣ imɣan lli mu ittyafa latṛ nnsn ɣ Walili, llant tmẓin, Ibawn, Tilintit, Aḍil d Tazart, ttyafan gis ula 57 n uzrg n uzatim (tamɛṣṣṛt n zzit)[8]. Ɣ uzmz n tnbaḍt n Iṛumiyn ar tssfuɣ Walili Azatim (zzit) d imudar gʷrdnin ula wid ḍuẓnin, zun d ifasiwn lli smaɣn Iṛumiyn d ismgan ar tn ttḍufn.[8]

Tuṣkiwt tamazdart[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ɣ uzmz n Iṛumiyn tbuɣla tmsdagt d lbni ɣ Walili s tɣarast taṛumiyt, tusɛu gis tmdint kigan, tugtt n tuṣkiwin ttuṣkant s yan wanaw n uẓṛu ar t id qqazn ɣ udranr n Ẓṛhun, iga uklu nns amiɣid yaẓ nn s ujnjaṛiy. Tettyawssan Walili s tugtt n fusayfisa ɣ ttuṛcamn imudar d imɣan lli gis llanin ɣ uzmz ann, ula wid ganin ɣar ummiyn.[9]

Idrizn n tmdint[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tisntutin[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Takarḍa n Walili d tuṣkiwin lli gis
  • Basilika: tga zun d tasnbḍayt n ɣilad, tumẓ tajumma iggutn, tettuṣlaḥ gr isggʷsn 1965 d 1967.[9]
  • Kabiṭul: illa ɣ yiffus n Basilika, ittuṣka ɣ uzmz n Maṛkinus, asggʷas 217, ɣ wansa n ufuṛum aqdim, ittyawṣlaḥ ɣ usggʷas 1962.[9]

Iggura[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  • Aggur n Ṭanja
  • Aggur n Iẓẓlmḍ
  • Aggur n iffus

Tigʷmma n tuzdɣt[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tigʷmma n middn inmɣun n Walili ttuṣkant s tɣarast taṛumiyt, ilint ɣ Dikumanus Maksimus asuk mqqurn ɣ tmdint.[9]

  • Tigmmi n Urfyus
  • Tigmmi n Finus (Takuct)
  • Tigmmi n txddamin n Hiraql
  • Iɣrm n Kardyan

Irzzutn irkyulujitn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Volubilis Decauville track.jpg

Irzzutn ggutnin ɣ Walili ttuskarn ɣ uzmz n usdurry afṛaniṣ gr isggʷasn 1912 d 1955, macc ssntan dat n uzmz ad s tmrawin n isggʷasn. zɣ mad tsdurry Fṛanṣa Dzayr ɣ usggʷ 1930, ssntan imassan irkyulujitn ifṛanṣiṣn irzzutn ɣ idrizn n iṛumiyn llanin ɣ iẓẓlmḍ n tagut d tuẓẓumt n Tfriqt s tiḍaf n isrdasn n fṛanṣa.[10]

Irzzutn irkyulujitn iskr tn umrzu afṛanṣiṣ Hinri du la Martini gr isggʷasn 1887 d 1892[11] ɣ usggʷs n 1915 ismagl Ubir Lyuṭi, anbbaḍ amsrdas n Lmɣrib ɣ uzmz n usdurry, amrzu aṛkyuluji afṛanṣiṣ Marsil Ugist Dyulafwa (en) ad iskar irzzutn ɣ udɣar n walili, dffir as iswuri gis Lwis Catilan (en).[11] Alliɣ yumẓ lmɣrib azarug nns, smdn isnubbucn ɣ udɣar n Walili ddu tnbaḍt n lmɣtib.

Azmem ɣ Yunisku[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tskchim Yunisku adɣar n Walili i tlgamt n idɣarn n taysi tamaḍlant ɣ usggʷas 1997. Ɣ isggʷsn n id 80, iskr usqqim agraɣlan n idrizn d idɣarn (ICOMOS) kṛaḍt tinawin d inmuqqarn f idɣarn lli isẓḍaṛ ad kcimn s tlgamt n taysi tamaḍlqnt ɣ iẓẓlmḍ n Tfriqt, ismagl ilmma usqsim ad ɣ usggʷas 1997 bac ad tkcim Walili s tlgamt n taysi tamaḍlant acku iga yan udɣar ittufragn, iḥḍu timitar n tbɣurt n Iṛuminyn[11], tqbl t ilma Yunisku tsskcim t s tlgamt nns n taysi tamaḍlant.

Ẓṛ ula[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Izdayn n bṛṛa[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Commons-logo.svg
Tẓḍart ad tẓṛt uggar f Volubilis ɣ usnfar n Commons.

Iɣbula[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  1. 1,0 et 1,1 Archaeological Site of Volubilis, Yunisku
  2. 2,0 et 2,1 مجلة زمان، وليلي أو قصر فرعون
  3. 3,0 et 3,1 African World Heritage Fund, ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE OF VOLUBILIS
  4. Carrasco, J. L. Escacena (2000). "Archaeological relationship between North Africa and Iberia". In Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Martínez-Laso, Jorge; Gómez-Casado, Eduardo (eds.). Prehistoric Iberia: Genetics, Anthropology, and Linguistics. New York: Springer. ISBN 0-306-46364-4.
  5. 5,0 5,1 et 5,2 Rogerson, Barnaby (2010). Marrakesh, Fez and Rabat. London: Cadogan Guides. ISBN 978-1-86011-432-8.
  6. Parker, Philip (2010). The Empire Stops Here: A Journey along the Frontiers of the Roman World. London: Random House. ISBN 978-0-224-07788-0.
  7. Davies, Ethel (2009). North Africa: The Roman Coast. Chalfont St Peter, Bucks: Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-84162-287-3.
  8. 8,0 et 8,1 Volubilis - Ancient Village or Settlement in Morocco
  9. 9,0 9,1 9,2 et 9,3 UNESCO, World Heritage List, Volubilis, Morocco, N 836.
  10. Raven, Susan (1993). Rome in Africa. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-08150-4.
  11. 11,0 11,1 et 11,2 UNESCO Advisory Body Evaluation (PDF). September 1997.