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Lɛammt

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Lɛammt
Lɛammt g usun n ugadir buɛciba, tagrawt n Unzu, tanara n Fṭwaka,2015

isfka n tẓuṛi
Tamazirt : Lmɣrib (infḍwak, iɣjdamn, Ẓayyan, Sus)
Aẓuṛ adlsan : taẓuṛi tamaziɣt
Anaw : abldi
Imurarn : irgazn d tmɣarin
Imassn : Tallunt, Ganga, Afus

Tiẓuṛiwin srs izdin
aḥwac, aḥidus, ṛṛwayṣ


Lɛammt[1][2]tga yan wanaw n tẓuṛi tamaziɣt iwtn s iẓuṛan g umzruy n ufgan amaziɣ tasut f tasut, tga taẓuṛi n uṛkaḍ[3][4] imunn d nnḍm, tg s yat tgmiḍi iggutn taẓuṛi n irgazn. taẓuṛi ad tlla dar tugt n tqqbilin g Lmɣrib. Tettyussan bahra lɛammt g tqqbilt n infḍwak[5] iwalan i tamnaḍt n Uzilal, tasga n Bni Mllal-Xnifṛa. Lɛammt tga taẓuṛi iẓlin s tqqbilt n infḍwak, tlla lɛammt ula g mnnawt n tmnaḍin n tqqbilt n iɣjdamn inmalan d tqqbilt n infḍwak sg tsga n iffus utrim. . Ism ad n lɛammt illa g tmizar yaḍni zun Ẓayyan d Sus macc idrus, acku darsn anawn yaḍnin n tẓuṛi, Sus gis Aḥwac, Ẓayyan nutni ar tturarn s Uḥidus. Tettuyssan Lɛammt s ismawn yaḍni zun "Lɛmmt" d "Lɛammat".

Ar tettyawskar Lɛammt akud nna illa kra n uzmzzu iẓlin s tqqbilt nɣ s kra n usun nɣ aḍwwaṛ, zun ig tlla tmɣra dar usli nɣ taslit, ttlgit (anmuggur da skarn middn i lɛaml, lqqayd nɣ kra n ubṛlamani) n kra wudm imqqurn, asfuglu s kra n uzmzzu n tsrtit zun istayn nɣ kra n imnɣi. G irir n Lɛammt ar ttbddadn tugt n irgazn ar skarn adur[3], lsn tijlluba nɣ lfuqqiyyat tumlilin nɣ tiwraɣin (idrus ma g ttilint g kra n ukʷlu yaḍn), d idukan d titqacrin[3] (ar asnt ttinin ttqqacṛ) ula nttnti g ma iggutn ar ttggant tumlilin nɣ tiwraɣin, gn f yixf nnsn acddad nɣ taṛẓẓit (ar as ttinin infḍwak ṛṛẓṭ) tawṛaɣt nɣ tumlilt nɣ ar lssan f ixfawn nnsn tacacit (nɣ ṭṭagiyya) ula nttat g ukʷlu umlil nɣ awraɣ; agʷln g iɣariwn (nɣ iɣṛaḍ) nnsn lkʷmmit, ku argaz ar dis isatti allun nɣ tallunt nns nɣ ar ittḥuc ɣar s ifassn nns, yili ditsn ula bab n ganga, ar ssntayn (nɣ ar bddun) irgazn llɣa nɣ tanḍḍamt ar kkatn allun ar ig iḥma ilmma kcmn d tfrxin (ar asnt ttinin timḥwacin) ilsan lqqṭib d tmlsa tiblday n tmazirt skrnt ula nttnti adur nnsnt dat adur n irgazn macc ur a ditsn ttxllaḍn ar ig ssrɣan lɛammt ilmma ku argaz ar d ilddi yat tfruxt ad dis ittḥuc. Tifrxin ar ttḥucnt s ifassn macc irgazn ar ttḥucn s ifassn nɣ s tallunt.

Aẓuṛ n ism[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Aẓuṛ n yism n "Lɛammt" ur illi kra n usaɣul ittyaran fllas isawln, macc ar fllas sawaln middn g tudrt nnsn takuyast. G Lmɣrib ar aṭṭan middn ingr yan ufgan da iḥṣan lqqṛan d wid da ur t iḥṣin, middn da iḥṣan ar asn ttinin "ṭṭlba" (amyun ns Ṭṭalb) nɣ "lmsafrin" (amyun nns lmsafr, ar asn aqqran s ism ad acku ar ttsafarn afad ad ḥṣun lqqṛan); middn da ur iḥṣin Lqqṛan ar asn aqqran s "iɛammin" (amyun nns Aɛammi). Llan kra n iwnnan ittinin mas ism n Lɛammt ittyafka i tẓuṛi ad acku ar tt tturarn ɣaṛr middn da ur iḥṣin Lqqṛan nɣ "iɛammin", ɣayann af tga Lɛammt. Illa daɣ yan wawal yaḍn ittinin mas taguri n "Lɛammt" ar tt ttinin i tẓuṛi ad acku g mad izrin lɛammt ar tt tturarn middn akkʷ n iqqbiln, ku aqqbil nɣ ku usun ar ttmunan imzdaɣn nns akkʷ akud nna illa kra n usfuglu, middn n usun akkʷ ad igan lɛammt[6][7], ur ar ttinin mas tlla lɛammt abla ig ggutn middn.

Ɛbdllah Zidan ar isawwal f Lɛammt g tanara n Fṭwaka (©Avidyu ittyafsar ḍaṛt turagt n mass Ɛbdllah Zidan)

Ar daɣ ttinin middn mas lɛammt tusi ism ad acku ar skarn middn n tqqbilt lɛammt akud nna darsn d yucka kra n wudm imqqurn zun d lɛaml, amawas, agllid nɣ kra n wudm n tsrtit; g unmuggar ad ar gis ttilin inbgiwn (udmawn imqqurn) d middn n tqqbilt (lɛammt), middn da ittḥucn gan sg lɛammt, mayad af tusi tẓuṛi ad ism n "Lɛammt" acku ar tt tturarn lɛammt n middn[6][7].

G mayad izrin ku aqqbil ar gis ttilint tugt n trubba n uḥwac, akud nna illa kra n usfuglu imqqurn ar ttmunant tirubba ad g yat trabbut imqqurn ar aqqran s yism n lɛammt[8].

Asnml n Lɛammt[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tigmiḍi n irgazn d tmɣarin g Lɛammt (Timɣarin ar ttidrusn g lɛammt ar ttggant sg yat ar awkk kṛaḍt, macc irgazn ẓẓḍaṛn ad gn g lɛammt uggar n sin n wagnarn (40) n urgaz).

Taẓuṛi n imaziɣn tut s iẓuṛan g umzruy ɣiklli sisn yut ufgan amaziɣ g tmazirt nns. Ur tgi tẓuṛi tamaziɣt kra n imrsi yuhnen akud nna fllas nsawal nɣ nra a fllas nɣr, nlmd mad iga d mad gan iẓuṛan nns. Akud nna isawal yan f tẓuṛi tamaziɣt ar isaqqul tarabbut n middn ar tthḍaṛn, macc akud nna nggiwr s akal nsrs tirsal nara iskkiln nḥṣu tn, ngr iẓṛi nnɣ f ku taqqbilt d tẓuṛi nns, nsiggl amzaray ar ittmmrkas wawal yaḍṛ tannayt nnɣ tamzwarut f tẓuṛi tamaziɣt.

Lɛammt ula nttat tḍfaṛ taẓuṛi tamaziɣt g ummrks, icqqa ad nini g yan wawal ula g mraw n iwaliwn mad igan lɛammt, ɣayann af rad ka nẓẓḍaṛ ad nsrs tifrisin n tẓuṛi ad bac ad nẓẓḍaṛ ad nsmzaray ingras d tẓuṛiwin yaḍnin:

  • Ar ittili g lɛammt wallun (ṭṭaṛat) d ganga, nɣ tẓẓḍaṛ ad tili lɛammt ɣar s wallun[9].
  • Lɛammt tga irir n ṭṭaṛt, ur tlli lɛammt bla ṭṭaṛt, g tuddma ar ssrɣan irgazn ṭṭaṛt nnsn bac ad tfk ṭṭaṛt awal. Ar ttinin infḍwak mas lɛammt tga irir n ṭṭaṛt, aḥwac iga irir n ufus.[9]
  • Lɛammt tga irir n irgazn, idrus ma g ttilint tmɣarin g lɛammt, ar ittili wadur n tmɣarin g lɛammt ig ur illi ubṛṛani f usun, macc timɣaṛin ur ar tturarnt abla s ufus, ur ar sattint amya. Ar ttinin infḍwak mas ar ibddu usfuglu s lɛammt iggra s uḥwac acku ar tturarn irgazn lɛammt g tuddma, ɣar da tṛqqa lɛammt kcmn d tmɣarin ilmma tzri lɛammt taɣul tg aḥwac.[9]
  • G lɛammt ur gis asmuss iggutn, ar smussun irgazn iɣṛaḍ nnsn, ar kkatn ṭṭaṛt ar tturarn s iḍaṛn d ifassn macc ur illi usmuss iggutn, ar ittili ummus idrusn.[9]
  • G lɛammt aṛkaḍ ar ittgga amgru, ur ar itturar ku yan waḥdu t, ar iskar wadur n irgazn kullu t yan umussu, ar smussun iḍaṛn g yan uzmz ula ifassn ar tn smussun g yan uzmz.[9]
  • Lɛammt tga taẓuṛi n tmmuɣra d ussmɣr ur tgi irir n tfugliwin mẓẓinin.
  • Lɛammt ar gis ttilin irgazn imqqurn iwssirn, ar ittidrus ma ɣ gis ttilin imẓẓyann.
  • Ur tlli lɛammt s imiqq n irgazn, g lɛammt iqqan d ad iggutn irgazn, ar ttggan 40 d uggar n urgaz.
  • Lɛammt tga taẓuṛi ittmunun d lhibt d luqqṛ acku ar ttili ɣar g isfuglutn da istawhmman, d isfuglutn da g ar ttirin iqqbiln ad sbann tirrugza nnsn g wammas n iqqbiln yaḍnin.
  • G lɛammt irgazn ar tturarn s tfgga nnsn, s iḍaṛn, ifassn d iɣṛaḍ, ar ttirirn nɣ ar ttnḍamn kra n tallɣatin ifssusn igan tin tmazirt nnsn. Irir g lɛammt ar ittifsus ur ar ittgga zun win uḥwac.
  • Lmizan n lɛammt iẓẓay ur igi zun win uḥwac, irir ifssus d urar ula ntta ifssus.

Gr tamawt 1[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tarabbut n Lɛammt tẓḍaṛ ad tskr ula Aḥwac, macc asnti ar ittili s lɛammt ar ittggru s uḥwac ur tẓẓḍaṛ trabbut ad tsnti n uḥwac tggʷra s lɛammt. G uzray sg lɛammt s uḥwac ag ad ttbadal talɣa n irir ngr lɛammt da iẓẓayn d uḥwac da ifsusn g irir ns.[10]

Gr tamawt 2[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ar ssmrasn mddn ism n Lɛammt ula i trabbut da itturarn lɛammt, ar ttinin tuckad lɛammt n nɣ tlla lɛammt s unamk mas d tucka trabbut nna iskarn lɛamt. Lɛammt tga anaw n tẓuṛi tg ula ism n trabbut da itturarn anaw ad n tẓuṛi.

Amzaray gr Lɛammt d uḥwac[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Lɛammt ula Aḥwac gant tiẓuṛiwin iɣusn, qqbuṛnt ɣiklli iqqbuṛ ufgan amaziɣ, gant s sin tiẓuṛiwin tturar trabbut n middn, gnt sg tɣarasin n usfuglu dar imaziɣn. Amzaray n ism iḥba amzaray n unamk d talɣa ingr Uḥwac d Lɛammt, iḥba amzaray g uzmz n usfuglu iḥbu amzaray g mad iẓḍaṛn ad isfuglu idru g uznmzzu. Lɛammt tga taẓuṛi n irgazn s tgmiḍi iggutn, aḥwac iga taẓuṛi n g ttmmrkasn middn ar gis ittili wadur n irgazn d wadur n tmɣarin. Lɛammt tga irir n ufus (ṛṛcc) macc lɛammt tga irir n ṭṭaṛat (tallunt). G lɛammt ar skarn irgazn yan wadur ur ẓḍaṛn ad munn nɣ ad skrn taẓaṛt. Amzaray yaḍni illa g lmizan nɣ tazzla n irir d uṛkaḍ, imḥwacn ar ttirirn s tzzla macc ayt Lɛammt ar ttirirn ar tṛkaḍn s lḥilat.[11]

Infḍwak[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ig nḍfaṛ kigan n imrzutn isawln f iẓuṛan d iqqbiln imaziɣn, zun Ibn Xaldun, Ibn Ḥazm d Abu Bakṛ Ṣṣnhaji iqqan d a nini mas Infḍwak ur gin aqqbil, macc gan iɣss nɣ azɣr (s tɛṛabt : بطن) sg iɣsan da iḍfaṛn i uqqbil n Iskurn (s tɛṛabt : هسكورة), inna Ibn Xaldun mas Iskurn gan aytmatn n iẓnagn (iṣnhajn) sg immatsn, zdɣn g udrar n Drn[12], yini mas Infḍwak gan iɣss amqqṛan g Iskurn, ar gis ittnbaḍn nutni.[12].

infḍwak g wammas n iqqbiln imaziɣn

Aẓuṛ n ism[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Ism ad ur fllas illi kra n usaɣul ittyaran s tmaziɣt, mqqar fllas sawl kigan n imrzutn s tɛṛabt d tfṛanṣiṣt. Aḥmad Tawfiq isawl f ism n "fṭwak"[13] mas iga babatsn amzwaru n infḍwak d ntta af ttyasmman infḍwak, isawl ula f ism n "Fṭwaka" s tɛṛabt. ibn Xaldun, ibn Ḥazm d Abu bakṛ ṣṣnhaji sawln f ism n "Fṭwaka". Mayad a yuddjan ismawn ad ggudin s tmaziɣt, illa ma ittinin "infṭwak"[14], ili ma ittinin "infḍwak". Ula middn g tmazirt n infḍwak ar ttxllaḍn ismawn ad.

Iskurn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Iskurn[15] (s tɛṛabt : هسكورة) gan aqqbil nɣ tamsmunt n iqqbiln (s tɛṛabt : اتحادية قبلية) Tuzduɣt n Iskurn tga tamazirt bahra imqqurn. Ibn Xaldun inna mas tga tuzduɣt n Iskurn sg iffus n wasif n Ḍṛɛa tzrit sg udrar n Drn ar uzaɣar n Tadla[12]. Ḥasan Lwazzan ntta ar ittini mas tamazirt n Iskurn tbda sg tukarin n Dduakal (Dkkala) s umnid n taggut ar wasif n Tansift g dar udrar n Adimi[16]

infḍwak n wassad[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Tamazirt n infḍwak ɣassad tbḍa f snat tinariwin (nɣ Lqqiyyadat): tanara n Fṭwaka d tanara n Ayt tamllil.

Tanara n Fṭwaka gis kṛaḍt n tgrawin (nɣ Ljamaɛat): tagrawt n tidili Fṭwaka, tagrawt n Sidi Yaɛqub d tgrawt n Anzu. Tagrawt n tidili Fṭwaka gis kṛaḍ imɣaṛn: amɣaṛ n tdili, amɣaṛ n Iḥuddjin d umɣaṛ n Iɣil n tikiḍ. Tagrawt n Sidi Yaɛqub gis kṛaḍ imɣaṛn : amɣaṛ n Ayt mɛlla, amɣaṛ n Ayt flalaḍ d umɣaṛ n Surnn. Tagrawt n Unzu gis ula nttat kṛaḍ imɣaṛn: amɣaṛ n Ayt mḥmmd, amɣaṛ n Tasawt d umɣaṛ n Tglawwut.

Tanara n Ayt tamllil gis snat tgrawin: tagrawt n Ayt tamllil d tgrawt n Ayt umdis. Tagrawt n Ayt tamllil gis kṛaḍ imɣaṛn: amɣaṛ n Ayt tamllil, amɣaṛ n Ayt mdiwal d umɣaṛ n Ayt mgun n iffus. Tagrawt n Ayt umdis gis kkuẓ n imɣaṛn: amɣaṛ n Ayt umdis n ugafay, amɣaṛ n Ayt umdis n iffus, amɣaṛ n Ayt ḥmid d umɣaṛ n Tacakʷct.

Nẓẓḍaṛ a nsnmili infḍwak s tɣarast ad n izddar:

  1. Tanara n Fṭwaka:
    1. Tagrawt n tidili Fṭwaka:
      1. Amɣaṛ n tdili
      2. Amɣaṛ n Iḥuddjin
      3. Amɣaṛ n Iɣil n tikiḍ
    2. Tagrawt n Sidi Yaɛqub:
      1. amɣaṛ n Ayt mɛlla
      2. Amɣaṛ n Ayt flalaḍ
      3. Amɣaṛ n Surnn
    3. Tagrawt n Unzu:
      1. Amɣaṛ n Ayt mḥmmd
      2. Amɣaṛ n Tasawt
      3. Amɣaṛ n Tglawwut
  2. Tanara n Ayt tamllil:
    1. Tagrawt n Ayt tamllil:
      1. Amɣaṛ n Ayt tamllil
      2. Amɣaṛ n Ayt mdiwal
      3. Amɣaṛ n Ayt mgun n iffus
    2. Tagrawt n Ayt umdis:
      1. Amɣaṛ n Ayt umdis n ugafay
      2. Amɣaṛ n Ayt umdis n iffus
      3. Amɣaṛ n Ayt ḥmid
      4. Amɣaṛ n Tacakʷct

Udmawn ittyawssann n infḍwak[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Infḍwak utn s iẓuṛan g umzruy, mayad af sgisnd ffuɣn kigan n udmawn ittwassn, zun:

  • Ḥmman umfḍwak nɣ Ḥmman Lfṭwaki : iga yan sg inzbayn imqqṛan g Lmɣrib ig yan sg wida isrsn tirsal n "Lḥaṛaka lwaṭaniyya".
  • Mrirda n Ayt ɛtiq nɣ Mrirda n Ayt uɛtiqq nɣ Mrirda tanḍḍamt[17] : tga tanḍḍamt illis n usun n Mgdaz igan yan sg iḍuṛan n infḍwak. Ttwassn Mrirda ddau afus n uslmad afṛanṣiṣ Ṛuni Uluj, acku issuɣɣl nnḍm ns s tutlayt tafṛanṣiṣt g udlis ns "Les chants de la Tassaout"[18]. Ṛuni Uluj nttan iga aslmad g Dmnat g uusggas n 1927, imnaggar d Mrirda g tmdint n uzilal, Mrirda ar gis tskar tanḍḍamt g igadazn acku tzdɣ txdm gis, Uluj d nttan ar isiggil f ayt nnḍm acku iga yan sg ifṛanṣawin icnubbucn f tdlsa d tnḍḍamt tamɣribit[17]. kra n tguriwin sg tnḍḍamt n Mrirda n ayt ɛtiqq :

A ha nn tukrt iyi ukrɣ k da ixllu takatin
A yan iran ad ig tagmat yaggʷ nn s anuḍ
Iẓaṛ uzzal mamnk s ad isbrrad wiyyaḍ
Ig uccn aḥddad ili uṣkay f lkir

— Ṛuni Uluj, Les chants de la Tassaout

iɣjdamn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Iɣjdamn ula nttni gan yan sg iɣsan n Iskurn n umalu zun infḍwak, umẓn iɣjdamn f tmazirt n infḍwak sg tsga n iffus, infḍwak ula iɣjdamn llan g idrarn n Waṭlaṣ mqquṛn. [19] Isawl Aḥmad Ttawfiq f iɣjdamn, inna mas babatsn ismnt "ɣjdam", gan ula nttni sg iskurn zun infḍwak[13]. Isawl Ḥasan Lwazzan f iɣjdamn g udlis ns "Waṣf ifriqya"[20], inna mas nn ikka tamazirt n iɣjdamn g usggas n 1514 Ḍ.T, inna mas ɣjdamn zdɣn g yan umadl ixwan, acku nɣantn imwaḥdin g tigira n imṛabṭn acku urmn ad awsn i ugllid amggaru n imṛabṭn at igan d Bṛahim iwis Tacfin iwis n Ɛli iwis n Yusf iwis n Tacfin.[20][21]

iẓuṛan n iɣjdamn g wammas n imaziɣn

Aẓuṛ n ism[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Aḥmad Ttawfiq g udlis n innultann inna mas ism n "iɣjdamn" ikkad ism n babatsn da ismnn "ɣjdam". Ili yan wawwal yaḍni ttinin middn f waẓuṛ n ism ad, at igan mas middn n waṭlaṣ ar ttinin g tutlayt nnsn tamaziɣt "ɣjdm" s unamk n "ggʷawr", ar ttinin "ut aɣjdim" zɛma "ggʷawr", iẓẓḍaṛ wadd a ig aẓuṛ n ism n iɣjdamn[22].

Iɣjdamn n wassad[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Iɣjdamn ɣassad ḍfuṛn i tmnaḍt n Lḥawz, tasga n Mrrakc-Asfi, bḍan f kṛaḍt tgrawin: tagrawt n Ayt Ɛadl, tagrawt n Ubadu d tagrawt n Ḥkim :

  1. Tagrawt n Ayt Ɛadl
  2. Tagrawt n Ubadu
  3. Tagrawt n Ḥkim

lɛammt n iɣjdamn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Iɣjdamn nutni ur a tturarn akkʷ lɛammt acku darsn anawn yaḍni n tẓuṛi da s ttyawssan, ar tturarn nutni s Ayt lhḍṛt (gan zun lɛammt), macc iɣjdamn n ugafa da imzadayn d infḍwak ar tturarn lɛammt, ar as ttinin nutni "lɛmmt"[23] ar ttkksn askkil "ya" sg wammas n "yal" d "yam".

Lɛammt g tmizar yaḍni[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Lɛammt tga taẓuṛi iẓlin s infḍwak, macc ar tt tturarn iqqbiln yaḍni zun iɣjdamn, Sus d Ayt Zayyan. Iɣjdamn d Ayt Sus ar as ttinin "Lɛmmt", Ayt Ẓayyan ar as ttinin "Lɛammat". Mqqaṛ tlla Lɛammt dar iqqbiln ad yaḍni macc ur srs ttyawssan d ur darsn tgi taẓuṛi tadslant zun mklli tga dar infḍwak. Ayt Sus ttyussan s Uḥwac, ayt Ẓayyan ttyussan s Uḥidus.

Timlsa n irgazn[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Timlsa n ifx n ayt lɛammt n iḥuddjin, infḍwak,2015. Kra gisn ilsa taṛẓẓit (zun wiss kṛaḍ sg uẓlmaḍ) kra yaḍni ilsa ttagiyya (zun wiss sin sg ufasi)

Lɛammt tga taẓuṛi iqqbuṛn g tmizar n infḍwak d iɣjdamn ɣiklli tqqbuṛ tuzduɣt n middn ad g idrarn n Waṭlaṣ mqquṛn d uzaɣaṛ n tasawt, ula timlsa n lɛammt qqbuṛnt, timlsa da izdin s ufgan d tudrt ns takuyasst zdint ula s tdlsa d usgd d uswir n tudrt n ufgan g tmazirt ns. Tamṭṭi tamaziɣt tmzaday bdda s usgd tusutin f tusutin ɣad a yuddjan tamatart f tɣarast n imaziɣn g tmlsa, lɛammt ur tgi taẓuṛi n usurar d uzzray n uzmaz, macc tga yat tẓuṛi tamaddudt n usfuglu, ɣad a yaddjan timlsa n irgazn ula nttnti ad gnt sg yan wanaw d talɣa d imcackan d usfuglu amaddud n imaziɣn.

Timlsa n urgaz amaziɣ ar ttggant yat sg snat, a ils tajllabit ɣ wakud n uṣmmiḍ nɣ a ils lfuqqiyya g wakud n tiṛɣi, ig iga sg inmɣuṛn n tmazirt ns ar ilssa aslham. G izmaz da izrin, izmaz n lhif d tassast ikkattin urgaz ar ilssa aɛban nɣ ttcamir, aɛban iga timlsit ittyaɛdaln g tgmmi ur d ikkin agadaz, acku middn ur a darsn ttilin iqqaṛiḍn n uxyyaṭ.

Timlsa n urgaz g uḥwac ur gint iftiln idln tifyyi, ur gint ijɛtan ibbin ur gint tawwri iẓẓḍaṛ a iskr kraygat yan d iwin iɣarasn, macc gant tamatart g talɣa nnsnt d ukʷlu nnsnt, gant timlsa yakkan tannayt iqquzzrn f tudrt n ufgan d uswir ns, gant timlsa iwsin tadlsa n ufgan, gant timyurin iwtn s iẓuṛan g umzruy n ufgan, gant tamatart isawwaln f usgd d tsrtit, gant tmlsa n urgaz g lɛammt amzruy da d fln iqqbuṛn i warraw n ɣass, gant anuflay n urgaz amaziɣ.

Ar lssan irgazn g lɛammt timlsa sg iḍaṛn ar ixf, ku timlsit tmsacka d d tayyaḍ, ar lssan :

  1. Idukan : aduku amaziɣ ittyawssan s ukʷlu nns awṛaɣ, ɣayann af irgazn ar lssan g lɛammt aduku awṛaɣ. Idrus ig tlla kra n trabbut n lɛammt g lsan irgazn aduku umlil nɣ aduku da izwwqn.
  2. Ttqqacṛ: g uzmz aqqbuṛ ur issin yan is ar lssan imaziɣn ttqqacṛ nɣ uhu acku ur illi kra n usaɣul ittyaran fllasnt isawwaln macc ɣaṣṣa ur tlli kra n lɛamt g ur lsin irgazn ttqqacṛ d idukan, ar lssan ttqqacṛ tumlilin, idrus ig lsan ttqqacṛ g kra n ukʷlu yaḍni.
  3. Tajllabit: tajllabit tga sg timyurin tiqqbuṛin n imaziɣn, ur illi ufgan amaziɣ war tajllabit slawan g tmizar n udrar, acku tga timlsit n uṣmmiḍ. Ar sgiddin imaziɣn tajllabit sg taḍuḍ afad a tṛɣ d afad a fllasn tasi aṣmmiḍ. Lɛammt d nttat ur tskir kra n uzmz, tẓẓḍaṛ a tili g tgrst nɣ g unbdu azmz n tiṛɣi, ɣayad af ad lssan irgazn tijlluba g lɛammt akud nna illa uṣmmiḍ.
  4. Lfuqqiyya: ar ttili lɛammt g unbdu, azmz n tiṛɣi, mayad a ittajjan irgazn g lɛammt ad lsn lfuqqiyya ifssusn g uklu umlil nɣ awṛaɣ.
  5. Ssrwal (nɣ akarbay[24]) aqqnḍṛiṣi: irgazn ur ad lssan tajllabit d lfuqqiyya waḥdutnt, ar asnt lssan sg izdar ssrwal ilan akʷlu n tjllabit nɣ n lfuqqiyya, g ma iggutn ar ittgga ssrwal aqqnḍṛiṣi.
  6. Taṛẓẓit nɣ acddad: ixf d nttan ur at iffal urgaz iɛrra g lɛammt, ar as lssan taṛẓẓit g ukʷlu n tjllabit. Ar as ttinin infḍwak taṛẓẓit nɣ acddad.
  7. Ttagiyya: sg tmlsa n ixf, ar lssan irgazn ula ttagiyya g ukʷlu d imcackan d tmlsa yaḍni.
  8. Aslham: tẓẓḍaṛ lɛammt att skrn irgazn ula s uslham ar t lssan sg uflla n tjallabit d lfuqqiyya.
  9. Lkʷmmit: lʷmmit tga sg timyurin n imaziɣn ar tt sattin irgazn ditsn g izmaz n imnɣi ula g uzmz n ufra allig tga sg tmyurin n tmlsa n ufgan amaɣ. Lkʷmmit dar imaziɣn ur sul tgi ka timlsit nɣ sslaḥ, macc turri tga tamatart n tamɣṛt d tattuyt n waddad n urgaz g wammas n tqqbilt ns, ayad a yujjan lkʷmmit ad tg yat sg tmlsa n lɛammt, acku lɛammt tga azmz lli g ad immala urgaz ifx ns i tqqbilt.
  10. Azrur: iga sg tmlsa n irgazn ar ittyalsa f iɣiṛ macc ar ittaggʷz ar lḥzam, akʷlu ns ar ittili g uzggʷaɣ waḥdut nɣ ar gis ttilin tugt n ikʷlan zun aẓṛwal, azgzaw d uɣmi. Ar ittyaxdam uzrur sg taḍuṭt d tugt n tqqaṛiḍin mẓẓinin, ku ifilu n taḍaḍt ar dis ttyazday yat tqqaṛiḍt bac akud nna ittmussu a isawwal ( a iskar imsli, imsli n tqqaṛiḍin).

Timlsa n tmɣarin[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Timlsa n tmɣaṛt tamaziɣt ttyawssant mas gant timyurin iwtn s iẓuṛan g umzruy, ku tamazirt ar gis ttmmẓlaynt tmlsa n tmɣaṛt g ikʷlan d talɣa. Tamɣaṛt tamaziɣt g inmuggarn inamunn ar tlssa tmɣaṛt timlsa da dars ifulkin, tida d imcackan d usfuglu da illan, zun tamɣṛa dars timlsa ns, lislam, asbrrk nɣ kra n usfuglu izdin s tmyurin.

Lɛammt tga yat tẓuṛi izdin bahra s urgaz, illa ma ittinin mas lɛammt tga ɣar taẓuṛi n irgazn nɣ "aḥwac n irgazn", ɣayan af a ittidrus ig tkcm tmɣaṛt lɛammt, ig awkk kcmnt tmɣarin lɛammt ar ttili yat nɣ snat tmɣarin ur a ttggʷutn, ar lssant timlsa ur asnt yakkan tiṭṭ g wammas n lɛammt. G dar infḍwak ar kccmnt tmɣarin lɛammt ig ur illi ubṛṛani[10], akud nna illa ubṛṛani ur a kccmnt tmɣarin lɛammt ar tturarn irgazn waḥdutn. Ig kcmnt tmɣarin lɛammt ar lssant ar lssant :

  • Tawnzataẓṛẓit : tawnza tga sg tmlsa n ixf ar ttili f tamult n tmɣaṛt ar tt tlssa sg nnig lqqṭib nɣ nnig tmlḥaft, tawnza ur tgi ttub macc tga anas nɣ ar ttyaɛdal sg nnqqṛt d kra n umɣuz yaḍni ilan atig, ar ittgga ukʷlu ns amɣiɣd iddan s umlil. Tawnza ar as aqqran g kra n tmizar s tẓṛẓit zun dar infḍwak d iɣjdamn.
  • Tamlḥaft: tga yat tgzzumt n ttub ittyalsan f ixf tggʷz ar lzam, ar ittgga ukʷlu ns umlil, ar ttyalsa sg nnig lqqṭib, ar fllas ttyalsa twnza.
  • Lqqmiṣ: iga timlsit n tfgga n tmɣaṛt, ar tt issntal sg umggʷṛḍ ar iḍaṛn ar iṭṭṛaḥa akal, ar sgis d ttbanan ɣir idukan s imiqq. Akʷlu n lqqmiṣ ar ittgga yan nɣ ar gis ttilin tugt n ikʷlan, azggʷaɣ, awṛaɣ, azgzaw nɣ awkk aẓṛwal. Ar iskar lqqmis lḥzam iḍnin s imiqq.
  • Lqqṭib: ittwassn dar tmɣaṛt tamaziɣt s ukʷlu ns azggaɣ immrksn s kra n ikʷlan yaḍni imadrasn zun azgzaw d uwṛaɣ. Iga lqqṭib sg tmlsa n ixf macc ar ittaggʷz d udm ar idmarn, yaggʷz daɣ sg ḍaṛt ar iɣṛaḍ ittrs f lqqmiṣ. Iga lqqṭib yat sg tmatarin n tmlsit tamaziɣt.
  • Idukan: ar asn ttinint tmɣarin n infḍwak "lblɣt", lblɣt s wawwal n infḍwak tga tayyuga i idukan, sin idukan.


Imassn n Lɛammt[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Urar ur a ittgga taẓuṛi abla ig fllas ikcm ummrks, ammrks n wawwal zun nnḍm nɣ irir, ammrks n urar s ixf ns d ummrks n imassn d ifassn. Imassn nutni ar ttrnun tifiras n tẓuṛi i kraygat tawwri zun ig nenna tiṛṛuyṣa, at ur tlli tiṛṛuyṣa bla rribab, ig nenna taẓnẓaṛt, at ur tlli kra n tẓnẓaṛt bla lbanju, ig nenna aḥidus at ur illi kra n uḥidus bla tallunt. Ɣmklli gant akkʷ tẓuṛiwin ad, ad tga ula lɛammt, dars imassn ns srs iẓlin, d ur tẓḍaṛ ad tili abla ig llan. Imassn n lɛammt ur rad gnt kra n imassn d ikkan bṛṛa i tmazirt n imaziɣn, acku ku taẓuṛi ar tt skarn id mulas s ɣaylli darsn g tmuzar nnsn, ur tlli kra n tẓuṛi g waṭlaṣ issmrasn imassn n Uṛuppa nɣ n Marikan, taẓuṛi n tmazirt tlla s imassn n tmazirt. Imassn n lɛammt gan tawwri n ifassn n imaziɣn ar tn tthyyan sg ilmawn n imudar n darsn, willi darsn illan g tmazirt, zun ilm n waɣɣaḍ, ilm n umugay nɣ afunas, ilm ulli, ur a ikccm g ushyyu n imassn ad abla tiwwuriwin n tmazirt. Mayad aiga tamatart mas taẓuṛi ad tga taẓuṛi n tmazirt ur d tkki kra n mani yaḍni acku sg imassn ns ur llin g kra n tmazirt yaḍni abla tamazirt n lɛammt.

  • Tallunt (nɣ ṭṭaṛt): tallunt tga sg imassn da illan g tugt n tẓuṛiwin timaziɣin, tlla g lɛammt, aḥidus, taḥidust, aḥwac d tugt n tẓuṛiwin yaḍni. Imiss iga yan macc assmrs imzaray, imzaray wawwal n tallunt g uḥwac f wawwal ns g uḥidus d lɛammt. Tallunt urd tkki bṛṛa i tmazirt macc tga illis n wakal ns zun id bab ns, acku tlla bdda g kraygat asfuglu igit win usli, taslit nɣ win tazzant mẓẓin. Tallunt dars tugt n ismawn, ar as aqqran middn s "tallunt", "allun" "ṭṭaṛt"/ "ṭṭaṛṭ" nɣ awkk "lbndir" g kra n tasgiwin. Tamguri[25] n tallunt ur a ttḍalab ma iggutn, ar gis kccmnt mnnaw n tɣawsiwin nẓẓḍaṛ a naf g kraygat usun, tsɣawsa s kṛaḍt tɣawsiwin : ilm, akccuḍ d mnnaw n tqqaṛiḍin n uzzal. Ilm ar ittgga win waɣɣaḍ nɣ win ulli/tixsi nɣdd awkk win tfunast, ar as ttkksn azzar xdmnt bahra g dar udbbaɣ nɣ ar ittyaxdam g tgmmi ar t ttxdamnt tmɣarin; akccuḍ ar ittgga win uzmmur acku akccuḍ n uzmmur iṣḥa ur a ittṛṛẓa; tiqqaṛiḍin d nttnti ar ttyaxdamnt dar umzil n usun, ar tnt ittxdam ɣiklli ittxdam tasila, timgrt, imgr, talkkawsut d akkʷ ismmwad n tfllaḥt n ayt tmazirt. Assmrs[26] n tallunt ula nttan iẓli, ur att ikkat bab n lɛammt akud nna ira, macc iqqand ad zwar tṛɣ, ayt lɛammt ar ssrɣan zwar lɛfit urta tbdi lɛammt afad zwar ad ssrɣn tallunt, ar srasn tallunt tama n lɛfit arig tḥma ilma ddun srs dar lɛammt, nɣ ig tlla tafukt, ar srasn tallunt g tafukt arig tḥma ilma ar srs tturarn. Tallunt ar zwar tṛqqa afad a srs urarn lɛammt acku amukris ad ikkad ilm da sg ttyaɛdal, akud nna ikrm lḥal ar ittmunu ur sul a yakka imsli ifulkin, ɣayad af iqqand a zwar iṛɣ g tuddma n urar n lɛammt. Amukris ad n ilm a yuddjan kra n trubba ad ssmrasn tallunt tatrart mqqar ur a tskar zun tawwri n tallunt taqqbuṛt.
  • Ganga : ar ittgga yan g lɛammt acku ar yakka imsli icddan mliḥ. tẓẓḍaṛ ad tili lɛammt bla n ayli ganga ula bab n ganga. Tagmguri n ganga ur tcqqi, ar ttili s tɣarast n tallunt, ar gis ittyassmras ilm n imudar d ukccuḍ n uzmmur, macc g ma iggutn ar ittgga ilm win tfunast nɣ igiz, acku ilm n waɣɣaḍ d win ulli imẓẓi f ganga.

Asuds d usnmala n irgazn d tmɣarin g lɛammt[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Asuds d usnmala n irgazn d tmɣarin g Lɛammt

Lɛammt tga asfuglu ismunan tugt n middn, irgazn d tmɣarin. Akud nna tlla lɛammt ku yan ar iṭṭamẓ aḍɣaṛ ns, ur tlli tbdda n mxamma g wammas n tẓuṛi ad igan taqqbuṛt, igan taẓuṛi da s ad tmmala ku taqqbilt takbṛanit ns d tattuyt n waddur ns. G lɛammt ar ttbddadn irgazn yan tama n yan, ar skarn adur iɣzzifn, kra s a ittɣzzifi wadur ad kra s atthyyab lɛammt, ur a ittili wadur dat wayyaḍ, ar ittili yan wadur mqqar iɣzzif a gis tili kkuẓ id mraw nɣ uggar n urgaz. Dat adur ad n irgazn ar gis ittbddad yan urgaz da iṣwagʷn lɛammt ar as ttinin "aɛllam" nɣ "lamin" n lɛammt ar ittgga kra n urgaz imqqurn da issn ittcyyx g lɛammt, dars didas amzruy iggʷutn. G tama n umɣaṛ n lɛammt ar ittili buganga, ar yakka s taynnit i umɣaṛ macc ar gis isaqqul bac at iḍfaṛ, ar yakka buganga s udm ns i wadur n lɛammt, adur n irgazn.

Lɛammt tga g ma iggutn taẓuṛi n irgazn, ar ittidrus ig tt kcmnt tmɣarin, ar tt kccmnt s uṭṭun imẓẓin: yat nɣ snat ig ggʷutnt. Timɣaṛin da ikccmn lɛammt ar asnt ittili uḍɣaṛ da tnt id iqqannd, ur ẓẓḍaṛnt ad bddant g dinna ukan rant. Ar ttbddadnt dat nɣ mgal adur n irgazn, ku yat ar ttbddad s ixf ns ur ad ttnmalant g tbdda, ku yat ar ttili g yat tsga; yat tmɣaṛt ar ttibdad f ufasi n lamin yat f uẓlmaḍ ns. Nɣ ar ittili ig tlla yat tmɣaṛt g lɛammt ar ttbddad waḥdutt d ixf ns.

Tanḍḍamt g ugʷns n Lɛammt[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Afgan amaziɣ imzaday bdda g tmyurin d twrglin ns s nnḍm d tdyazt, ur ad dars izrri kra n uznmzzu war tnḍḍamt, nnḍm iga dars taysi ilan atig, taysi isattin s waddur n tudrt tadlsant ns. Tanḍḍamt ur tgi awal ihwnn, ur iẓḍaṛ kraygat yan ad inḍm. Tanḍḍamt g Lɛammt ar ttmzaday d wanaw n uznmzzu, is iga asrtan, amunan (zun litihal) nɣ win kra n wannaz. Ar ittnḍam lamin n lɛammt i uznmzzu d i mddn ḥaḍṛnin.

Amdya n tnḍḍamt:

Ah awa, at ncca kada d ayt lxir
Ncca kada
Ha wayyaḍ awa dda yxlfi

— Lɛammt n infḍwak

Tanḍḍamt ad tzdi s bab n uznmzzu da isnubbgn trabbut g dars, nẓẓḍaṛ ad nini mas iwaliwn ad gan iwaliwn nɣ taguri n usnimmr i bab n tgmmi.

Ayt lɛammt[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

imsli n unḍḍam Bṛahim Ctuta, yan sg ayt lɛammt, iwis n usun n "iniccl", Ayt mḥmmd, tagrawt n Unzu, tamnaḍt n Uzilal. Ar dis isawwal Lḥusayn AIT TAYFST, 2023 (argaz ad ur issujad bac a inḍm, lɛammt ur dars tgi tawwri)

Urar n lɛammt ur isɣawsa s usmuttg nɣ s tɣri, lɛammt tga darsn yat sg twwuriwin tikuyassin g tudrt nnsn, ku aḍwwaṛ nɣ ku mnnawt n iḍuṛan ar smunan yat trabbut n lɛammt, ar gis ttilin imẓẓayn d imqqṛan ur illi kra n uwtay igan win ukccum s lɛammt.

Mass Bṛahim Ctuta iga amdya n mddn da itturarn lɛammt.

Lɛammt: taẓuṛi tanammast gr Uḥidus d Uḥwac[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

Imaziɣn s umata zdin s tẓuṛi, ku aqqbil ila yat talɣa srs iẓlin, ar nttafa Aḥidus dar iqqbiln n Ẓayyan, aḥwac dar iqqbiln n Sus. G wammas n uqqbil ar ttmzaray tẓuṛi sg usun s wayyaḍ macc ar tɣamant tifras mas ad ttisint mas taẓuṛi ad tga sg talɣa ad nɣ tayyaḍ. Aḥwac n Ẓayyan ittyawssan s ṭṭaṛat, aslham d wadur n tmɣarin d irgazn, ittyawssan ula s taẓayt ns; aḥwac ittyawssan s irir n ufus, tazzla ns d talɣa n imḥwacn da ittggan g ma iggutn taẓayṛt d ar gis ttmmrkasn irgazn s tmɣarin; Lɛammt tkka ingratsn, ttyawssan s wadur n irgazn, ṭṭaṛat d taẓayt zun aḥidus, ttyawssan ula s tmlsa, nnḍm d Ganga zun aḥwac. Nẓḍaṛ ad nini mas aḥidus iga taẓuṛi n Ẓayyan nɣ n waṭlaṣ mẓẓin, Aḥwac iga taẓuṛi n Sus, Lɛammt tga taẓuṛi n infḍwak, aṭlaṣ mqquṛn.[11][27] [28]

Isaɣuln[ssnfl | Snfl asagm]

  • Tamsmunt n "Tizi n lxir", aḍwwaṛ n Ixrrazn, Surn, tanara n Fṭwaka
  • Tamsmunt n "Aḥwac iḥuddjin", tagrawt n tidili-fṭwaka, tanara n Fṭwaka
  • Tamsmunt n "Igʷnan Dmnat",Dmnat
  1. Taguri ittyawssmrasn g tqqbilt n infḍwak zun d ism n yan wanaw n tẓuṛi
  2. (mzɣ) برنامج أنثروبولوجيا: قبيلة فطواكة، سعيد باجي وعبد الهادي زيدان
  3. 3,0 3,1 et 3,2 Sg Msmun awal amatay asnmalay n tmaziɣt (MWMSM) n usinag agldan n tussna tamaziɣt (SGSM) :https://web.archive.org/web/20210103122850/https://tal.ircam.ma/dglai/lexieam.php
  4. https://amawal.net/a%e1%b9%9bka%e1%b8%8d
  5. Ism ad ar t issmras umrzu nɣ aminag Ɛbdlhadi Zidan (iga iwis n tqqbilt n infḍwak)
  6. 6,0 et 6,1 Tugga n middn n tgrawt n Ubadu, aḍwwaṛ n imziln.
  7. 7,0 et 7,1 Tugga n middn da itturarn lɛammt g tgrawt n Ayt Mḥmmd d Sidi Yaɛqub, infḍwak.
  8. Tugga n irgazn imqquṛn sg tmazirt n Ayt flalaḍ, taqqbilt n infḍwak, 2023
  9. 9,0 9,1 9,2 9,3 et 9,4 Tugga n lɛammt n usun n Ixrran, Surn, Ayt flalaḍ, infḍwak, Aṭlaṣ mqquṛn.
  10. 10,0 et 10,1 Tugga n lamin n trabbut n Ixrrazn, Surn, ayt flalaḍ, infḍwak, 2023
  11. 11,0 et 11,1 أحواش:الرقص والغناء الجماعي بسوس،عادات وتقاليد، أحمد بوزيد الكنساني، 1996
  12. 12,0 12,1 et 12,2 Adlis n tarix Ibn Xaldun (ابن خلدون, كتاب تاريخ ابن خلدون, الجزء 6، صفحة 354)
  13. 13,0 et 13,1 المجتمع المغربي في القرن 19 ( اينولتان 1850-1912 ), أحمد التوفيق, منشورات كلية الآداب والعلوم الانسانية بالرباط, رسائل و أطروحات رقم 63, الطبعة : الثالثة - سنة 2011م, صفحة رقم : 58
  14. موسوعة قبائل المغرب : قبيلة فطواكة http://tribus-maroc.blogspot.com/2011/10/blog-post_1426.html
  15. المجتمع المغربي في القرن 19 ( اينولتان 1850-1912 ), أحمد التوفيق, منشورات كلية الآداب والعلوم الانسانية بالرباط, رسائل و أطروحات رقم 63, الطبعة : الثالثة - سنة 2011م, صفحة رقم : 54
  16. Ḥasan Lwazzan, adlis : وصف افريقيا
  17. 17,0 et 17,1 (ar) http://www.azilal-online.com/?p=28830
  18. (fr) Les chants de la Tassaout (poèmes et chants de Mririda n'Ait Attik, traduit du Tachelhit par René Euloge), René Euloge
  19. (ar) http://tribus-maroc.blogspot.com/2014/11/blog-post.html
  20. 20,0 et 20,1 (ar) كتاب وصف افريقيا، الجزء الأول، الحسن الوزان، ترجمة محمد حجي و محمد الأخضر، الطبعة الثانية 1983
  21. Mutations sociales dans la Haut Atlas. Les Ghoujdama, Ali Amahan, 2017
  22. Tugga n middn sg tqqbilt n iɣjdamn
  23. Tugga n Muḥmmad Amzil, iga argaz imqquṛn, ig iwis n tqqbilt n iɣjdamn, aḍwwaṛ n imziln.
  24. (mzɣ) https://amawal.net/akarbay
  25. https://amawal.net/tamguri
  26. https://amawal.net/ssemres
  27. رقصة أحيدوس: بين المحلية ودينامية التحول، فاطمة بوخريص، منشورات المعهد الملكي للثقافة الأمازيغية، 2010
  28. إماريرن: مشاهير شعراء احواش في القرن العشرين، أحمد عصيد، منشورات المعهد الملكي للثقافة الأمازيغية، 2011
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